Where to get zithromax over the counter

This is referred to as “MAGI-like budgeting.” Under MAGI rules income can be where to get zithromax over the counter up to 138% of the FPL—again, higher than the limit for DAB budgeting, which is equivalent to only 83% FPL. MAGI-like consumers can be enrolled in either MSP or MIPP, depending on if their income is higher or lower than 120% of the FPL. If their income is under 120% FPL, they are eligible for MSP as a SLIMB.

If income is above 120% FPL, where to get zithromax over the counter then they can enroll in MIPP. (See GIS 18 MA/001 - 2018 Medicaid Managed Care Transition for Enrollees Gaining Medicare, #4) 3. New Medicare Enrollees who are Not Yet in a Medicare Savings Program When a consumer has Medicaid through the New York State of Health (NYSoH) Marketplace and then enrolls in Medicare when she turns age 65 or because she received Social Security Disability for 24 months, her Medicaid case is normally** transferred to the local department of social services (LDSS)(HRA in NYC) to be rebudgeted under non-MAGI budgeting.

During the transition process, she should where to get zithromax over the counter be reimbursed for the Part B premiums via MIPP. However, the transition time can vary based on age. AGE 65+ For those who enroll in Medicare at age 65+, the Medicaid case takes about four months to be rebudgeted and approved by the LDSS.

The consumer is entitled to MIPP payments for at least three months where to get zithromax over the counter during the transition. Once the case is with the LDSS she should automatically be re-evaluated for MSP. Consumers UNDER 65 who receive Medicare due to disability status are entitled to keep MAGI Medicaid through NYSoH for up to 12 months (also known as continuous coverage, See NY Social Services Law 366, subd.

4(c). These consumers should receive MIPP payments for as long as their cases remain with NYSoH and throughout the transition to the LDSS. NOTE during buy antibiotics emergency their case may remain with NYSoH for more than 12 months.

See here. See GIS 18 MA/001 - 2018 Medicaid Managed Care Transition for Enrollees Gaining Medicare, #4 for an explanation of this process. Note.

During the buy antibiotics emergency, those who have Medicaid through the NYSOH marketplace and enroll in Medicare should NOT have their cases transitioned to the LDSS. They should keep the same MAGI budgeting and automatically receive MIPP payments. See GIS 20 MA/04 or this article on buy antibiotics eligibility changes 4.

Those with Special Budgeting after Losing SSI (DAC, Pickle, 1619b) Disabled Adult Child (DAC). Special budgeting is available to those who are 18+ and lose SSI because they begin receiving Disabled Adult Child (DAC) benefits (or receive an increase in the amount of their benefit). Consumer must have become disabled or blind before age 22 to receive the benefit.

If the new DAC benefit amount was disregarded and the consumer would otherwise be eligible for SSI, they can keep Medicaid eligibility with NO SPEND DOWN. See this article. Consumers may have income higher than MSP limits, but keep full Medicaid with no spend down.

Therefore, they are eligible for payment of their Part B premiums. See page 96 of the Medicaid Reference Guide (Categorical Factors). If their income is lower than the MSP SLIMB threshold, they can be added to MSP.

If higher than the threshold, they can be reimbursed via MIPP. See also 95-ADM-11. Medical Assistance Eligibility for Disabled Adult Children, Section C (pg 8).

When the Part B Premium Reduces Countable Income to Below the Medicaid Limit Since the Part B premium can be used as a deduction from gross income, it may reduce someone's countable income to below the Medicaid limit. The consumer should be paid the difference to bring her up to the Medicaid level ($904/month in 2021). They will only be reimbursed for the difference between their countable income and $904, not necessarily the full amount of the premium.

See GIS 02-MA-019. Reimbursement of Health Insurance Premiums MIPP and MSP are similar in that they both pay for the Medicare Part B premium, but there are some key differences. MIPP structures the payments as reimbursement -- beneficiaries must continue to pay their premium (via a monthly deduction from their Social Security check or quarterly billing, if they do not receive Social Security) and then are reimbursed via check.

In contrast, MSP enrollees are not charged for their premium. Their Social Security check usually increases because the Part B premium is no longer withheld from their check. MIPP only provides reimbursement for Part B.

It does not have any of the other benefits MSPs can provide, such as. A consumer cannot have MIPP without also having Medicaid, whereas MSP enrollees can have MSP only. Of the above benefits, Medicaid also provides Part D Extra Help automatic eligibility.

There is no application process for MIPP because consumers should be screened and enrolled automatically (00 OMM/ADM-7). Either the state or the LDSS is responsible for screening &. Distributing MIPP payments, depending on where the Medicaid case is held and administered (14 /2014 LCM-02 Section V).

If a consumer is eligible for MIPP and is not receiving it, they should contact whichever agency holds their case and request enrollment. Unfortunately, since there is no formal process for applying, it may require some advocacy. If Medicaid case is at New York State of Health they should call 1-855-355-5777.

Consumers will likely have to ask for a supervisor in order to find someone familiar with MIPP. If Medicaid case is with HRA in New York City, they should email mipp@hra.nyc.gov. If Medicaid case is with other local districts in NYS, call your local county DSS.

Once enrolled, it make take a few months for payments to begin. Payments will be made in the form of checks from the Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC), the fiscal agent for the New York State Medicaid program. The check itself comes attached to a remittance notice from Medicaid Management Information Systems (MMIS).

Unfortunately, the notice is not consumer-friendly and may be confusing. See attached sample for what to look for. Health Insurance Premium Payment Program (HIPP) HIPP is a sister program to MIPP and will reimburse consumers for private third party health insurance when deemed “cost effective.” Directives:Medicare Savings Programs (MSPs) pay for the monthly Medicare Part B premium for low-income Medicare beneficiaries and qualify enrollees for the "Extra Help" subsidy for Part D prescription drugs.

There are three separate MSP programs, the Qualified Medicare Beneficiary (QMB) Program, the Specified Low Income Medicare Beneficiary (SLMB) Program and the Qualified Individual (QI) Program, each of which is discussed below. Those in QMB receive additional subsidies for Medicare costs. See 2021 Fact Sheet on MSP in NYS by Medicare Rights Center ENGLISH SPANISH State law.

L. § 367-a(3)(a), (b), and (d). 2020 Medicare 101 Basics for New York State - 1.5 hour webinar by Eric Hausman, sponsored by NYS Office of the Aging Note.

Some consumers may be eligible for the Medicare Insurance Premium Payment (MIPP) Program, instead of MSP. See this article for more info. TOPICS COVERED IN THIS ARTICLE 1.

No Asset Limit 1A. Summary Chart of MSP Programs 2. Income Limits &.

Rules and Household Size 3. The Three MSP Programs - What are they and how are they Different?. 4.

FOUR Special Benefits of MSP Programs. Back Door to Extra Help with Part D MSPs Automatically Waive Late Enrollment Penalties for Part B - and allow enrollment in Part B year-round outside of the short Annual Enrollment Period No Medicaid Lien on Estate to Recover Payment of Expenses Paid by MSP Food Stamps/SNAP not reduced by Decreased Medical Expenses when Enroll in MSP - at least temporarily 5. Enrolling in an MSP - Automatic Enrollment &.

Applications for People who Have Medicare What is Application Process?. 6. Enrolling in an MSP for People age 65+ who Do Not Qualify for Free Medicare Part A - the "Part A Buy-In Program" 7.

What Happens After MSP Approved - How Part B Premium is Paid 8 Special Rules for QMBs - How Medicare Cost-Sharing Works 1. NO ASSET LIMIT!. Since April 1, 2008, none of the three MSP programs have resource limits in New York -- which means many Medicare beneficiaries who might not qualify for Medicaid because of excess resources can qualify for an MSP.

1.A. SUMMARY CHART OF MSP BENEFITS QMB SLIMB QI-1 Eligibility ASSET LIMIT NO LIMIT IN NEW YORK STATE INCOME LIMIT (2021) Single Couple Single Couple Single Couple $1,094 $1,472 $1,308 $1,762 $1,469 $1,980 Federal Poverty Level 100% FPL 100 – 120% FPL 120 – 135% FPL Benefits Pays Monthly Part B premium?. YES, and also Part A premium if did not have enough work quarters and meets citizenship requirement.

See “Part A Buy-In” YES YES Pays Part A &. B deductibles &. Co-insurance YES - with limitations NO NO Retroactive to Filing of Application?.

Yes - Benefits begin the month after the month of the MSP application. 18 NYCRR §360-7.8(b)(5) Yes – Retroactive to 3rd month before month of application, if eligible in prior months Yes – may be retroactive to 3rd month before month of applica-tion, but only within the current calendar year. (No retro for January application).

See GIS 07 MA 027. Can Enroll in MSP and Medicaid at Same Time?. YES YES NO!.

Must choose between QI-1 and Medicaid. Cannot have both, not even Medicaid with a spend-down. 2.

INCOME LIMITS and RULES Each of the three MSP programs has different income eligibility requirements and provides different benefits. The income limits are tied to the Federal Poverty Level (FPL). 2021 FPL levels were released by NYS DOH in GIS 21 MA/06 - 2021 Federal Poverty Levels Attachment II NOTE.

There is usually a lag in time of several weeks, or even months, from January 1st of each year until the new FPLs are release, and then before the new MSP income limits are officially implemented. During this lag period, local Medicaid offices should continue to use the previous year's FPLs AND count the person's Social Security benefit amount from the previous year - do NOT factor in the Social Security COLA (cost of living adjustment). Once the updated guidelines are released, districts will use the new FPLs and go ahead and factor in any COLA.

See 2021 Fact Sheet on MSP in NYS by Medicare Rights Center ENGLISH SPANISH Income is determined by the same methodology as is used for determining in eligibility for SSI The rules for counting income for SSI-related (Aged 65+, Blind, or Disabled) Medicaid recipients, borrowed from the SSI program, apply to the MSP program, except for the new rules about counting household size for married couples. N.Y. Soc.

Serv. L. 367-a(3)(c)(2), NYS DOH 2000-ADM-7, 89-ADM-7 p.7.

Gross income is counted, although there are certain types of income that are disregarded. The most common income disregards, also known as deductions, include. (a) The first $20 of your &.

Your spouse's monthly income, earned or unearned ($20 per couple max). (b) SSI EARNED INCOME DISREGARDS. * The first $65 of monthly wages of you and your spouse, * One-half of the remaining monthly wages (after the $65 is deducted).

* Other work incentives including PASS plans, impairment related work expenses (IRWEs), blind work expenses, etc. For information on these deductions, see The Medicaid Buy-In for Working People with Disabilities (MBI-WPD) and other guides in this article -- though written for the MBI-WPD, the work incentives apply to all Medicaid programs, including MSP, for people age 65+, disabled or blind. (c) monthly cost of any health insurance premiums but NOT the Part B premium, since Medicaid will now pay this premium (may deduct Medigap supplemental policies, vision, dental, or long term care insurance premiums, and the Part D premium but only to the extent the premium exceeds the Extra Help benchmark amount) (d) Food stamps not counted.

You can get a more comprehensive listing of the SSI-related income disregards on the Medicaid income disregards chart. As for all benefit programs based on financial need, it is usually advantageous to be considered a larger household, because the income limit is higher. The above chart shows that Households of TWO have a higher income limit than households of ONE.

The MSP programs use the same rules as Medicaid does for the Disabled, Aged and Blind (DAB) which are borrowed from the SSI program for Medicaid recipients in the “SSI-related category.” Under these rules, a household can be only ONE or TWO. 18 NYCRR 360-4.2. See DAB Household Size Chart.

Married persons can sometimes be ONE or TWO depending on arcane rules, which can force a Medicare beneficiary to be limited to the income limit for ONE person even though his spouse who is under 65 and not disabled has no income, and is supported by the client applying for an MSP. EXAMPLE. Bob's Social Security is $1300/month.

He is age 67 and has Medicare. His wife, Nancy, is age 62 and is not disabled and does not work. Under the old rule, Bob was not eligible for an MSP because his income was above the Income limit for One, even though it was well under the Couple limit.

In 2010, NYS DOH modified its rules so that all married individuals will be considered a household size of TWO. DOH GIS 10 MA 10 Medicare Savings Program Household Size, June 4, 2010. This rule for household size is an exception to the rule applying SSI budgeting rules to the MSP program.

Under these rules, Bob is now eligible for an MSP. When is One Better than Two?. Of course, there may be couples where the non-applying spouse's income is too high, and disqualifies the applying spouse from an MSP.

In such cases, "spousal refusal" may be used SSL 366.3(a). (Link is to NYC HRA form, can be adapted for other counties). In NYC, if you have a Medicaid case with HRA, instead of submitting an MSP application, you only need to complete and submit MAP-751W (check off "Medicare Savings Program Evaluation") and fax to (917) 639-0837.

(The MAP-751W is also posted in languages other than English in this link. (Updated 4/14/2021.)) 3. The Three Medicare Savings Programs - what are they and how are they different?.

1. Qualified Medicare Beneficiary (QMB). The QMB program provides the most comprehensive benefits.

Available to those with incomes at or below 100% of the Federal Poverty Level (FPL), the QMB program covers virtually all Medicare cost-sharing obligations. Part B premiums, Part A premiums, if there are any, and any and all deductibles and co-insurance. QMB coverage is not retroactive.

The program’s benefits will begin the month after the month in which your client is found eligible. ** See special rules about cost-sharing for QMBs below - updated with new CMS directive issued January 2012 ** See NYC HRA QMB Recertification form ** Even if you do not have Part A automatically, because you did not have enough wages, you may be able to enroll in the Part A Buy-In Program, in which people eligible for QMB who do not otherwise have Medicare Part A may enroll, with Medicaid paying the Part A premium (Materials by the Medicare Rights Center). 2.

Specifiedl Low-Income Medicare Beneficiary (SLMB). For those with incomes between 100% and 120% FPL, the SLMB program will cover Part B premiums only. SLMB is retroactive, however, providing coverage for three months prior to the month of application, as long as your client was eligible during those months.

3. Qualified Individual (QI-1). For those with incomes between 120% and 135% FPL, and not receiving Medicaid, the QI-1 program will cover Medicare Part B premiums only.

QI-1 is also retroactive, providing coverage for three months prior to the month of application, as long as your client was eligible during those months. However, QI-1 retroactive coverage can only be provided within the current calendar year. (GIS 07 MA 027) So if you apply in January, you get no retroactive coverage.

Q-I-1 recipients would be eligible for Medicaid with a spend-down, but if they want the Part B premium paid, they must choose between enrolling in QI-1 or Medicaid. They cannot be in both. It is their choice.

DOH MRG p. 19. In contrast, one may receive Medicaid and either QMB or SLIMB.

4. Four Special Benefits of MSPs (in addition to NO ASSET TEST). Benefit 1.

Back Door to Medicare Part D "Extra Help" or Low Income Subsidy -- All MSP recipients are automatically enrolled in Extra Help, the subsidy that makes Part D affordable. They have no Part D deductible or doughnut hole, the premium is subsidized, and they pay very low copayments. Once they are enrolled in Extra Help by virtue of enrollment in an MSP, they retain Extra Help for the entire calendar year, even if they lose MSP eligibility during that year.

The "Full" Extra Help subsidy has the same income limit as QI-1 - 135% FPL. However, many people may be eligible for QI-1 but not Extra Help because QI-1 and the other MSPs have no asset limit. People applying to the Social Security Administration for Extra Help might be rejected for this reason.

Recent (2009-10) changes to federal law called "MIPPA" requires the Social Security Administration (SSA) to share eligibility data with NYSDOH on all persons who apply for Extra Help/ the Low Income Subsidy. Data sent to NYSDOH from SSA will enable NYSDOH to open MSP cases on many clients. The effective date of the MSP application must be the same date as the Extra Help application.

Signatures will not be required from clients. In cases where the SSA data is incomplete, NYSDOH will forward what is collected to the local district for completion of an MSP application. The State implementing procedures are in DOH 2010 ADM-03.

Also see CMS "Dear State Medicaid Director" letter dated Feb. 18, 2010 Benefit 2. MSPs Automatically Waive Late Enrollment Penalties for Part B Generally one must enroll in Part B within the strict enrollment periods after turning age 65 or after 24 months of Social Security Disability.

An exception is if you or your spouse are still working and insured under an employer sponsored group health plan, or if you have End Stage Renal Disease, and other factors, see this from Medicare Rights Center. If you fail to enroll within those short periods, you might have to pay higher Part B premiums for life as a Late Enrollment Penalty (LEP). Also, you may only enroll in Part B during the Annual Enrollment Period from January 1 - March 31st each year, with Part B not effective until the following July.

Enrollment in an MSP automatically eliminates such penalties... For life.. Even if one later ceases to be eligible for the MSP.

AND enrolling in an MSP will automatically result in becoming enrolled in Part B if you didn't already have it and only had Part A. See Medicare Rights Center flyer. Benefit 3.

No Medicaid Lien on Estate to Recover MSP Benefits Paid Generally speaking, states may place liens on the Estates of deceased Medicaid recipients to recover the cost of Medicaid services that were provided after the recipient reached the age of 55. Since 2002, states have not been allowed to recover the cost of Medicare premiums paid under MSPs. In 2010, Congress expanded protection for MSP benefits.

Beginning on January 1, 2010, states may not place liens on the Estates of Medicaid recipients who died after January 1, 2010 to recover costs for co-insurance paid under the QMB MSP program for services rendered after January 1, 2010. The federal government made this change in order to eliminate barriers to enrollment in MSPs. See NYS DOH GIS 10-MA-008 - Medicare Savings Program Changes in Estate Recovery The GIS clarifies that a client who receives both QMB and full Medicaid is exempt from estate recovery for these Medicare cost-sharing expenses.

Benefit 4. SNAP (Food Stamp) benefits not reduced despite increased income from MSP - at least temporarily Many people receive both SNAP (Food Stamp) benefits and MSP. Income for purposes of SNAP/Food Stamps is reduced by a deduction for medical expenses, which includes payment of the Part B premium.

Since approval for an MSP means that the client no longer pays for the Part B premium, his/her SNAP/Food Stamps income goes up, so their SNAP/Food Stamps go down. Here are some protections. Do these individuals have to report to their SNAP worker that their out of pocket medical costs have decreased?.

And will the household see a reduction in their SNAP benefits, since the decrease in medical expenses will increase their countable income?. The good news is that MSP households do NOT have to report the decrease in their medical expenses to the SNAP/Food Stamp office until their next SNAP/Food Stamp recertification. Even if they do report the change, or the local district finds out because the same worker is handling both the MSP and SNAP case, there should be no reduction in the household’s benefit until the next recertification.

New York’s SNAP policy per administrative directive 02 ADM-07 is to “freeze” the deduction for medical expenses between certification periods. Increases in medical expenses can be budgeted at the household’s request, but NYS never decreases a household’s medical expense deduction until the next recertification. Most elderly and disabled households have 24-month SNAP certification periods.

Eventually, though, the decrease in medical expenses will need to be reported when the household recertifies for SNAP, and the household should expect to see a decrease in their monthly SNAP benefit. It is really important to stress that the loss in SNAP benefits is NOT dollar for dollar. A $100 decrease in out of pocket medical expenses would translate roughly into a $30 drop in SNAP benefits.

See more info on SNAP/Food Stamp benefits by the Empire Justice Center, and on the State OTDA website. Some clients will be automatically enrolled in an MSP by the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) shortly after attaining eligibility for Medicare. Others need to apply.

The 2010 "MIPPA" law introduced some improvements to increase MSP enrollment. See 3rd bullet below. Also, some people who had Medicaid through the Affordable Care Act before they became eligible for Medicare have special procedures to have their Part B premium paid before they enroll in an MSP.

See below. WHO IS AUTOMATICALLY ENROLLED IN AN MSP. Clients receiving even $1.00 of Supplemental Security Income should be automatically enrolled into a Medicare Savings Program (most often QMB) under New York State’s Medicare Savings Program Buy-in Agreement with the federal government once they become eligible for Medicare.

They should receive Medicare Parts A and B. Clients who are already eligible for Medicare when they apply for Medicaid should be automatically assessed for MSP eligibility when they apply for Medicaid. (NYS DOH 2000-ADM-7 and GIS 05 MA 033).

Clients who apply to the Social Security Administration for Extra Help, but are rejected, should be contacted &. Enrolled into an MSP by the Medicaid program directly under new MIPPA procedures that require data sharing. Strategy TIP.

Since the Extra Help filing date will be assigned to the MSP application, it may help the client to apply online for Extra Help with the SSA, even knowing that this application will be rejected because of excess assets or other reason. SSA processes these requests quickly, and it will be routed to the State for MSP processing. Since MSP applications take a while, at least the filing date will be retroactive.

Note. The above strategy does not work as well for QMB, because the effective date of QMB is the month after the month of application. As a result, the retroactive effective date of Extra Help will be the month after the failed Extra Help application for those with QMB rather than SLMB/QI-1.

Applying for MSP Directly with Local Medicaid Program. Those who do not have Medicaid already must apply for an MSP through their local social services district. (See more in Section D.

Below re those who already have Medicaid through the Affordable Care Act before they became eligible for Medicare. If you are applying for MSP only (not also Medicaid), you can use the simplified MSP application form (theDOH-4328(Rev. 8/2017-- English) (2017 Spanish version not yet available).

Either application form can be mailed in -- there is no interview requirement anymore for MSP or Medicaid. See 10 ADM-04. Applicants will need to submit proof of income, a copy of their Medicare card (front &.

Back), and proof of residency/address. See the application form for other instructions. One who is only eligible for QI-1 because of higher income may ONLY apply for an MSP, not for Medicaid too.

One may not receive Medicaid and QI-1 at the same time. If someone only eligible for QI-1 wants Medicaid, s/he may enroll in and deposit excess income into a pooled Supplemental Needs Trust, to bring her countable income down to the Medicaid level, which also qualifies him or her for SLIMB or QMB instead of QI-1. Advocates in NYC can sign up for a half-day "Deputization Training" conducted by the Medicare Rights Center, at which you'll be trained and authorized to complete an MSP application and to submit it via the Medicare Rights Center, which submits it to HRA without the client having to apply in person.

Enrolling in an MSP if you already have Medicaid, but just become eligible for Medicare Those who, prior to becoming enrolled in Medicare, had Medicaid through Affordable Care Act are eligible to have their Part B premiums paid by Medicaid (or the cost reimbursed) during the time it takes for them to transition to a Medicare Savings Program. In 2018, DOH clarified that reimbursement of the Part B premium will be made regardless of whether the individual is still in a Medicaid managed care (MMC) plan. GIS 18 MA/001 Medicaid Managed Care Transition for Enrollees Gaining Medicare ( PDF) provides, "Due to efforts to transition individuals who gain Medicare eligibility and who require LTSS, individuals may not be disenrolled from MMC upon receipt of Medicare.

To facilitate the transition and not disadvantage the recipient, the Medicaid program is approving reimbursement of Part B premiums for enrollees in MMC." The procedure for getting the Part B premium paid is different for those whose Medicaid was administered by the NYS of Health Exchange (Marketplace), as opposed to their local social services district. The procedure is also different for those who obtain Medicare because they turn 65, as opposed to obtaining Medicare based on disability. Either way, Medicaid recipients who transition onto Medicare should be automatically evaluated for MSP eligibility at their next Medicaid recertification.

NYS DOH 2000-ADM-7 Individuals can also affirmatively ask to be enrolled in MSP in between recertification periods. IF CLIENT HAD MEDICAID ON THE MARKETPLACE (NYS of Health Exchange) before obtaining Medicare. IF they obtain Medicare because they turn age 65, they will receive a letter from their local district asking them to "renew" Medicaid through their local district.

See 2014 LCM-02. Now, their Medicaid income limit will be lower than the MAGI limits ($842/ mo reduced from $1387/month) and they now will have an asset test. For this reason, some individuals may lose full Medicaid eligibility when they begin receiving Medicare.

People over age 65 who obtain Medicare do NOT keep "Marketplace Medicaid" for 12 months (continuous eligibility) See GIS 15 MA/022 - Continuous Coverage for MAGI Individuals. Since MSP has NO ASSET limit. Some individuals may be enrolled in the MSP even if they lose Medicaid, or if they now have a Medicaid spend-down.

If a Medicare/Medicaid recipient reports income that exceeds the Medicaid level, districts must evaluate the person’s eligibility for MSP. 08 OHIP/ADM-4 ​If you became eligible for Medicare based on disability and you are UNDER AGE 65, you are entitled to keep MAGI Medicaid for 12 months from the month it was last authorized, even if you now have income normally above the MAGI limit, and even though you now have Medicare. This is called Continuous Eligibility.

EXAMPLE. Sam, age 60, was last authorized for Medicaid on the Marketplace in June 2016. He became enrolled in Medicare based on disability in August 2016, and started receiving Social Security in the same month (he won a hearing approving Social Security disability benefits retroactively, after first being denied disability).

Even though his Social Security is too high, he can keep Medicaid for 12 months beginning June 2016. Sam has to pay for his Part B premium - it is deducted from his Social Security check. He may call the Marketplace and request a refund.

This will continue until the end of his 12 months of continues MAGI Medicaid eligibility. He will be reimbursed regardless of whether he is in a Medicaid managed care plan. See GIS 18 MA/001 Medicaid Managed Care Transition for Enrollees Gaining Medicare (PDF) When that ends, he will renew Medicaid and apply for MSP with his local district.

Individuals who are eligible for Medicaid with a spenddown can opt whether or not to receive MSP. (Medicaid Reference Guide (MRG) p. 19).

Obtaining MSP may increase their spenddown. MIPPA - Outreach by Social Security Administration -- Under MIPPA, the SSA sends a form letter to people who may be eligible for a Medicare Savings Program or Extra Help (Low Income Subsidy - LIS) that they may apply. The letters are.

· Beneficiary has Extra Help (LIS), but not MSP · Beneficiary has no Extra Help (LIS) or MSP 6. Enrolling in MSP for People Age 65+ who do Not have Free Medicare Part A - the "Part A Buy-In Program" Seniors WITHOUT MEDICARE PART A or B -- They may be able to enroll in the Part A Buy-In program, in which people eligible for QMB who are age 65+ who do not otherwise have Medicare Part A may enroll in Part A, with Medicaid paying the Part A premium. See Step-by-Step Guide by the Medicare Rights Center).

This guide explains the various steps in "conditionally enrolling" in Part A at the SSA office, which must be done before applying for QMB at the Medicaid office, which will then pay the Part A premium. See also GIS 04 MA/013. In June, 2018, the SSA revised the POMS manual procedures for the Part A Buy-In to to address inconsistencies and confusion in SSA field offices and help smooth the path for QMB enrollment.

The procedures are in the POMS Section HI 00801.140 "Premium-Free Part A Enrollments for Qualified Medicare BenefiIaries." It includes important clarifications, such as. SSA Field Offices should explain the QMB program and conditional enrollment process if an individual lacks premium-free Part A and appears to meet QMB requirements. SSA field offices can add notes to the “Remarks” section of the application and provide a screen shot to the individual so the individual can provide proof of conditional Part A enrollment when applying for QMB through the state Medicaid program.

Beneficiaries are allowed to complete the conditional application even if they owe Medicare premiums. In Part A Buy-in states like NYS, SSA should process conditional applications on a rolling basis (without regard to enrollment periods), even if the application coincides with the General Enrollment Period. (The General Enrollment Period is from Jan 1 to March 31st every year, in which anyone eligible may enroll in Medicare Part A or Part B to be effective on July 1st).

7. What happens after the MSP approval - How is Part B premium paid For all three MSP programs, the Medicaid program is now responsible for paying the Part B premiums, even though the MSP enrollee is not necessarily a recipient of Medicaid. The local Medicaid office (DSS/HRA) transmits the MSP approval to the NYS Department of Health – that information gets shared w/ SSA and CMS SSA stops deducting the Part B premiums out of the beneficiary’s Social Security check.

SSA also refunds any amounts owed to the recipient. (Note. This process can take awhile!.

!. !. ) CMS “deems” the MSP recipient eligible for Part D Extra Help/ Low Income Subsidy (LIS).

​Can the MSP be retroactive like Medicaid, back to 3 months before the application?. ​The answer is different for the 3 MSP programs. QMB -No Retroactive Eligibility – Benefits begin the month after the month of the MSP application.

18 NYCRR § 360-7.8(b)(5) SLIMB - YES - Retroactive Eligibility up to 3 months before the application, if was eligible This means applicant may be reimbursed for the 3 months of Part B benefits prior to the month of application. QI-1 - YES up to 3 months but only in the same calendar year. No retroactive eligibility to the previous year.

7. QMBs -Special Rules on Cost-Sharing. QMB is the only MSP program which pays not only the Part B premium, but also the Medicare co-insurance.

However, there are limitations. First, co-insurance will only be paid if the provide accepts Medicaid.

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Latest Lungs zithromax cost at walgreens News By Robert Visit This Link Preidt HealthDay ReporterTUESDAY, Dec. 15, 2020 (HealthDay News)After years of increases, nicotine and marijuana vaping among zithromax cost at walgreens U.S. Teens plateaued this year, but still they remain high, researchers report.Data from the most recent annual Monitoring the Future survey, zithromax cost at walgreens conducted by the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research, show that from 2017 to 2019, the percentage of teens who said they vaped nicotine in the past 12 months doubled. 7.5% to 16.5% among eighth graders. From 15.8% zithromax cost at walgreens to 30.7%, among 10th graders.

And from 18.8% to 35.3% among 12th graders.In 2020, rates held steady at 16.6%, 30.7% zithromax cost at walgreens and 34.5%, respectively. And between 2019 and 2020, daily or near daily (20 occasions in the past 30 days) nicotine vaping fell from 6.8% to 3.6% among zithromax cost at walgreens 10th graders and from 11.6% to 5.3% among 12th graders, the U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)-funded survey found."The rapid rise of teen nicotine vaping in recent years has been unprecedented and deeply concerning since we know that nicotine is highly addictive and can be delivered at high doses by vaping devices, which may also contain other toxic chemicals that may be harmful when inhaled," NIDA Director Nora Volkow said in an agency news release."It is encouraging to see a leveling off of this trend, though the rates still remain very high," she added.The survey also found that after a twofold increase over the past two years, rates of past-year vaping of marijuana also remained steady in 2020. 8.1% of zithromax cost at walgreens eighth graders. 19.1% of 10th graders, and 22.1% of 12th graders.Daily marijuana vaping fell by more than half from 2019, to 1.1% among 10th graders and 1.5% among 12th graders in 2020.Another finding from the survey was a large drop from 2019 to 2020 in the use of Juul vaping devices among teens in the two higher zithromax cost at walgreens grades.

Past 12-month use of the devices decreased from 28.7% to 20% among 10th graders, and from 28.4% to 22.7% zithromax cost at walgreens among 12th graders.There's been little change in alcohol use or cigarette use in recent years. Past year non-medical use of amphetamines among eighth graders increased from 3.5% in 2017 to 5.3% in 2020, but there were recent lows in past year use among 10th and 12th graders, 4.3% for both, and significant five-year declines.Past 12-month use of inhalants increased from 3.8% to 6.1% among eighth graders between 2016 and 2020. There was an all-time low use of inhalants among 12th graders.Past-year use of other drugs remains relatively low among zithromax cost at walgreens 12th graders. 3.9% for LSD zithromax cost at walgreens. 2.4% for synthetic cannabinoids.

2.9% for zithromax cost at walgreens cocaine. 1.8% for MDMA zithromax cost at walgreens (ecstasy). 1.4% for methamphetamine, and 0.3% for zithromax cost at walgreens heroin.More informationThe American Academy of Pediatrics has more on vaping.SOURCE. U.S. National Institute on Drug zithromax cost at walgreens Abuse, news release, Dec.

15, 2020Copyright zithromax cost at walgreens © 2020 HealthDay. All rights zithromax cost at walgreens reserved. QUESTION What is the average weight gain for those who quit smoking?. See AnswerLatest antibiotics News By Ernie Mundell and Robin Foster HealthDay zithromax cost at walgreens ReportersTUESDAY, Dec. 15, 2020 (Healthday News)The number of Americans killed by the new antibiotics topped zithromax cost at walgreens 300,000 on Monday, the same day the country launched a massive vaccination campaign to curb the spread of buy antibiotics.And on Tuesday morning, scientists from the U.S.

Food and Drug Administration released a data review that almost guarantees a second treatment will soon join the Pfizer treatment that was sent out on Monday. Moderna's two-shot regimen, which is based on the zithromax cost at walgreens same technology as the Pfizer treatment, was found to be 94 percent effective in a clinical trial and carried no serious safety concerns. The glowing assessment positions the Moderna treatment for approval from an FDA advisory panel that is meeting on Thursday, the Washington Post reported.As the first doses of Pfizer's treatment made their way to the arms of health care workers around the United States, a new survey from the Kaiser Family Foundation showed that 71% of Americans say they will "definitely or probably" get a buy antibiotics treatment.That's up from 63% in September, and it's a sign that a growing number of Americans are starting to trust the science behind the treatments as they become more comfortable with the speed in which the treatments are being developed.Still, just over a quarter of Americans are hesitant zithromax cost at walgreens to get a treatment, saying they probably or definitely would not get a buy antibiotics treatment even if it were free and deemed safe by scientists. The greatest reluctance was seen among Black Americans, people living in rural areas and Republicans.And not everyone wants a zithromax cost at walgreens shot right away. A third of those surveyed said they want to get a treatment "as soon as possible," while 39% of those surveyed said they would "wait and see" how initial vaccination efforts go before getting a treatment themselves.

Kaiser polled 1,676 adults for the survey.On Monday morning, the first vaccination outside a clinical trial in the United States zithromax cost at walgreens took place in Long Island Jewish Medical Center in Queens, The New York Times reported. The shot, made by Pfizer, was given to Sandra Lindsay, a critical care nurse at the center.Lindsay, who has treated patients throughout the zithromax, said that she hoped her public vaccination would instill zithromax cost at walgreens confidence that the shots were safe."I have seen the alternative, and do not want it for you," she said. "I feel zithromax cost at walgreens like healing is coming. I hope this marks the beginning of the end of a very painful time in our history."Lindsay's shot was part of the first shipments of nearly 3 million doses of the Pfizer antibiotics treatment that were on their way to hospitals in all 50 U.S. States.Gen.

Gustave F. Perna, chief operating officer of the federal effort to develop a treatment, told the Times that 425 sites are set to receive the treatment on Tuesday and 66 will get it on Wednesday.Most of the first round of injections are to be given to high-risk health care workers, the newspaper reported. Because the treatments can cause side effects including fevers and aches, hospitals have said they will stagger vaccinations among their workers.Residents of nursing homes, who have suffered a disproportionate share of buy antibiotics deaths, will begin to get shots next week, the Times reported. A vast majority of Americans will not be eligible for vaccinations until the spring or later.Alex Azar, who heads the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, said the plan is to have 20 million people vaccinated by the end of December, up to 50 million by the end of January and 100 million by the end of February, the Post reported.National vaccination campaign an unprecedented challengeThe logistics of a national buy antibiotics vaccination campaign are daunting.

Every state, along with six major cities, has submitted to the federal government a list of locations -- mainly hospitals -- where the Pfizer treatment is to ship initially. In Florida, hospitals in Jacksonville, Miami, Orlando, Tampa and Hollywood will get the initial doses of treatment, the Times reported. In rural Vermont, only the University of Vermont Medical Center and a state warehouse will get supplies.More than treatment doses be shipped nationwide. Medical supplier McKesson Corp will send kits of syringes, alcohol pads, face shields and other supplies to the same locations, where they will meet up with the treatments, the Times reported.As for the treatments, Pfizer will ship them in specially designed containers packed with dry ice, to keep the temperature inside at minus 94 degrees Fahrenheit. Each container will have a tracking device and a thermal probe, to make sure no treatment doses are lost or degraded.

Eventually, the Pfizer and treatments should help tame the spread of antibiotics.In some disappointing treatment news, Sanofi and GlaxoSmithKline said last week that their experimental antibiotics treatment did not work well in older adults, delaying the start of their late-stage clinical trial that had been set to begin in the United States in December, the Times reported.Instead, a modified version of the treatment will be tested in a smaller trial set to begin in February, the newspaper said. Rather than compare their candidate with a placebo, the companies noted it could be tested against an already approved treatment, Still, they now expect their treatment will not be available until the end of next year."We care greatly about public health, which is why we are disappointed by the delay announced today, but all our decisions are and will always be driven by science and data," Thomas Triomphe, executive vice president and head of Sanofi Pasteur, the company's treatment division, told the Times.The Sanofi treatment is one of six that were selected by Operation Warp Speed. The companies have negotiated a $2.1 billion agreement with the United States to provide 100 million doses, the Times said.A global scourgeBy Tuesday, the U.S. antibiotics case count passed 16.5 million while the death toll passed 300,000, according to a Times tally. By Tuesday, the top five states for antibiotics s were California with over 1.6 million, Texas with nearly 1.5 million cases, Florida with more than 1.1 million cases.

Illinois with nearly 858,000 cases and New York with nearly 790,000 cases.Curbing the spread of the antibiotics in the rest of the world remains challenging.In India, the antibiotics case count passed 9.9 million on Tuesday, a Johns Hopkins University tally showed. Nearly 144,000 antibiotics patients have died in India, according to the Hopkins tally, but when measured as a proportion of the population, the country has had far fewer deaths than many others. Doctors say this reflects India's younger and leaner population. Still, the country's public health system is severely strained, and some sick patients cannot find hospital beds, the Times said. Only the United States has more antibiotics cases.Meanwhile, Brazil had over 6.9 million cases and nearly 182,000 deaths as of Tuesday, the Hopkins tally showed.Worldwide, the number of reported s passed 72.9 million on Tuesday, with over 1.6 million deaths recorded, according to the Hopkins tally.More informationThe U.S.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has more on the new antibiotics.SOURCES. Washington Post. The New York TimesCopyright © 2020 HealthDay. All rights reserved..

Latest Lungs News http://baker-estates.co.uk/property/newton-grove-phase-2-sudbury-road-newton-sudbury-6/ By where to get zithromax over the counter Robert Preidt HealthDay ReporterTUESDAY, Dec. 15, 2020 (HealthDay News)After years of increases, nicotine and marijuana vaping where to get zithromax over the counter among U.S. Teens plateaued this year, but still they remain high, where to get zithromax over the counter researchers report.Data from the most recent annual Monitoring the Future survey, conducted by the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research, show that from 2017 to 2019, the percentage of teens who said they vaped nicotine in the past 12 months doubled.

7.5% to 16.5% among eighth graders. From 15.8% to where to get zithromax over the counter 30.7%, among 10th graders. And from 18.8% to where to get zithromax over the counter 35.3% among 12th graders.In 2020, rates held steady at 16.6%, 30.7% and 34.5%, respectively.

And between 2019 and 2020, daily where to get zithromax over the counter or near daily (20 occasions in the past 30 days) nicotine vaping fell from 6.8% to 3.6% among 10th graders and from 11.6% to 5.3% among 12th graders, the U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)-funded survey found."The rapid rise of teen nicotine vaping in recent years has been unprecedented and deeply concerning since we know that nicotine is highly addictive and can be delivered at high doses by vaping devices, which may also contain other toxic chemicals that may be harmful when inhaled," NIDA Director Nora Volkow said in an agency news release."It is encouraging to see a leveling off of this trend, though the rates still remain very high," she added.The survey also found that after a twofold increase over the past two years, rates of past-year vaping of marijuana also remained steady in 2020. 8.1% of eighth graders where to get zithromax over the counter.

19.1% of 10th graders, and 22.1% of 12th graders.Daily marijuana vaping fell by more than where to get zithromax over the counter half from 2019, to 1.1% among 10th graders and 1.5% among 12th graders in 2020.Another finding from the survey was a large drop from 2019 to 2020 in the use of Juul vaping devices among teens in the two higher grades. Past 12-month use of the devices decreased from 28.7% to 20% among 10th graders, and from 28.4% to 22.7% among 12th graders.There's been little where to get zithromax over the counter change in alcohol use or cigarette use in recent years. Past year non-medical use of amphetamines among eighth graders increased from 3.5% in 2017 to 5.3% in 2020, but there were recent lows in past year use among 10th and 12th graders, 4.3% for both, and significant five-year declines.Past 12-month use of inhalants increased from 3.8% to 6.1% among eighth graders between 2016 and 2020.

There was an all-time low use where to get zithromax over the counter of inhalants among 12th graders.Past-year use of other drugs remains relatively low among 12th graders. 3.9% for where to get zithromax over the counter LSD. 2.4% for synthetic cannabinoids.

2.9% for cocaine where to get zithromax over the counter. 1.8% for MDMA (ecstasy) where to get zithromax over the counter. 1.4% for methamphetamine, and 0.3% for heroin.More informationThe American Academy of Pediatrics where to get zithromax over the counter has more on vaping.SOURCE.

U.S. National Institute on Drug where to get zithromax over the counter Abuse, news release, Dec. 15, 2020Copyright © 2020 where to get zithromax over the counter HealthDay.

All rights where to get zithromax over the counter reserved. QUESTION What is the average weight gain for those who quit smoking?. See AnswerLatest antibiotics News By where to get zithromax over the counter Ernie Mundell and Robin Foster HealthDay ReportersTUESDAY, Dec.

15, 2020 (Healthday News)The number of Americans killed by the new antibiotics topped 300,000 on Monday, the same day the country launched a where to get zithromax over the counter massive vaccination campaign to curb the spread of buy antibiotics.And on Tuesday morning, scientists from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration released a data review that almost guarantees a second treatment will soon join the Pfizer treatment that was sent out on Monday. Moderna's two-shot regimen, which is based on the same technology as where to get zithromax over the counter the Pfizer treatment, was found to be 94 percent effective in a clinical trial and carried no serious safety concerns.

The glowing assessment positions the Moderna treatment for approval from an FDA advisory panel that is meeting on Thursday, the Washington Post reported.As the first doses of Pfizer's treatment made their way to the arms of health care workers around the United States, a new survey from the Kaiser Family Foundation showed that 71% of Americans say they will "definitely or probably" get a buy antibiotics treatment.That's up from 63% in September, and it's a sign that a growing number of Americans are starting to trust the science behind the treatments as they become more comfortable with the speed in which the treatments are being where to get zithromax over the counter developed.Still, just over a quarter of Americans are hesitant to get a treatment, saying they probably or definitely would not get a buy antibiotics treatment even if it were free and deemed safe by scientists. The greatest where to get zithromax over the counter reluctance was seen among Black Americans, people living in rural areas and Republicans.And not everyone wants a shot right away. A third of those surveyed said buy zithromax online uk they want to get a treatment "as soon as possible," while 39% of those surveyed said they would "wait and see" how initial vaccination efforts go before getting a treatment themselves.

Kaiser polled 1,676 adults for the where to get zithromax over the counter survey.On Monday morning, the first vaccination outside a clinical trial in the United States took place in Long Island Jewish Medical Center in Queens, The New York Times reported. The shot, made by Pfizer, was given to Sandra Lindsay, a critical care nurse at where to get zithromax over the counter the center.Lindsay, who has treated patients throughout the zithromax, said that she hoped her public vaccination would instill confidence that the shots were safe."I have seen the alternative, and do not want it for you," she said. "I feel where to get zithromax over the counter like healing is coming.

I hope this marks the beginning of the end of a very painful time in our history."Lindsay's shot was part of the first shipments of nearly 3 million doses of the Pfizer antibiotics treatment that were on their way to hospitals in all 50 U.S. States.Gen. Gustave F.

Perna, chief operating officer of the federal effort to develop a treatment, told the Times that 425 sites are set to receive the treatment on Tuesday and 66 will get it on Wednesday.Most of the first round of injections are to be given to high-risk health care workers, the newspaper reported. Because the treatments can cause side effects including fevers and aches, hospitals have said they will stagger vaccinations among their workers.Residents of nursing homes, who have suffered a disproportionate share of buy antibiotics deaths, will begin to get shots next week, the Times reported. A vast majority of Americans will not be eligible for vaccinations until the spring or later.Alex Azar, who heads the U.S.

Department of Health and Human Services, said the plan is to have 20 million people vaccinated by the end of December, up to 50 million by the end of January and 100 million by the end of February, the Post reported.National vaccination campaign an unprecedented challengeThe logistics of a national buy antibiotics vaccination campaign are daunting. Every state, along with six major cities, has submitted to the federal government a list of locations -- mainly hospitals -- where the Pfizer treatment is to ship initially. In Florida, hospitals in Jacksonville, Miami, Orlando, Tampa and Hollywood will get the initial doses of treatment, the Times reported.

In rural Vermont, only the University of Vermont Medical Center and a state warehouse will get supplies.More than treatment doses be shipped nationwide. Medical supplier McKesson Corp will send kits of syringes, alcohol pads, face shields and other supplies to the same locations, where they will meet up with the treatments, the Times reported.As for the treatments, Pfizer will ship them in specially designed containers packed with dry ice, to keep the temperature inside at minus 94 degrees Fahrenheit. Each container will have a tracking device and a thermal probe, to make sure no treatment doses are lost or degraded.

Eventually, the Pfizer and treatments should help tame the spread of antibiotics.In some disappointing treatment news, Sanofi and GlaxoSmithKline said last week that their experimental antibiotics treatment did not work well in older adults, delaying the start of their late-stage clinical trial that had been set to begin in the United States in December, the Times reported.Instead, a modified version of the treatment will be tested in a smaller trial set to begin in February, the newspaper said. Rather than compare their candidate with a placebo, the companies noted it could be tested against an already approved treatment, Still, they now expect their treatment will not be available until the end of next year."We care greatly about public health, which is why we are disappointed by the delay announced today, but all our decisions are and will always be driven by science and data," Thomas Triomphe, executive vice president and head of Sanofi Pasteur, the company's treatment division, told the Times.The Sanofi treatment is one of six that were selected by Operation Warp Speed. The companies have negotiated a $2.1 billion agreement with the United States to provide 100 million doses, the Times said.A global scourgeBy Tuesday, the U.S.

antibiotics case count passed 16.5 million while the death toll passed 300,000, according to a Times tally. By Tuesday, the top five states for antibiotics s were California with over 1.6 million, Texas with nearly 1.5 million cases, Florida with more than 1.1 million cases. Illinois with nearly 858,000 cases and New York with nearly 790,000 cases.Curbing the spread of the antibiotics in the rest of the world remains challenging.In India, the antibiotics case count passed 9.9 million on Tuesday, a Johns Hopkins University tally showed.

Nearly 144,000 antibiotics patients have died in India, according to the Hopkins tally, but when measured as a proportion of the population, the country has had far fewer deaths than many others. Doctors say this reflects India's younger and leaner population. Still, the country's public health system is severely strained, and some sick patients cannot find hospital beds, the Times said.

Only the United States has more antibiotics cases.Meanwhile, Brazil had over 6.9 million cases and nearly 182,000 deaths as of Tuesday, the Hopkins tally showed.Worldwide, the number of reported s passed 72.9 million on Tuesday, with over 1.6 million deaths recorded, according to the Hopkins tally.More informationThe U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has more on the new antibiotics.SOURCES. Washington Post.

The New York TimesCopyright © 2020 HealthDay. All rights reserved..

What should my health care professional know before I take Zithromax?

They need to know if you have any of these conditions:;

  • kidney disease; liver disease
  • pneumonia
  • stomach problems (especially colitis)
  • other chronic illness; an unusual or allergic reaction to azithromycin
  • other macrolide antibiotics (such as erythromycin), foods, dyes, or preservatives
  • pregnant or trying to get pregnant
  • breast-feeding

Zithromax and birth control

If you’re currently uninsured or enrolled in something like zithromax online in canada a short-term plan or health care sharing ministry plan and you’ve become eligible for premium subsidies as a result of the ARP, it’s likely an obvious choice to enroll in a plan through the zithromax and birth control marketplace in your state as soon as possible. And there’s a buy antibiotics/ARP enrollment window that continues through August 15 in most states, making it easy to enroll in a new plan and take advantage of the new subsidies. But if you’re already enrolled in an ACA-compliant plan, or even a grandmothered or grandfathered major medical plan, you’ll have to decide whether you want to make a plan change during the buy antibiotics/ARP enrollment window. And depending zithromax and birth control on the circumstances, it might not be an easy decision. Are out-of-pocket costs you’ve paid making you think twice?.

Unlike plan changes made during open enrollment, plan changes made during the buy antibiotics/ARP enrollment window will take effect mid-year. And for people who have already paid some or all of their zithromax and birth control deductible and out-of-pocket costs this year, that adds an extra layer of complication to the switch-or-not decision. Use our updated subsidy calculator to estimate how much you can save on your 2021 health insurance premiums. Normally, the general rule of thumb is that if you switch to a new plan mid-year, you’re going to be starting over at $0 on the new plan’s deductible and out-of-pocket expenses. (These are called accumulators, since it’s a running total of the expenses you’ve accumulated toward your zithromax and birth control out-of-pocket maximum).

For someone whose accumulators have already amounted to a sizable sum of money this year, having to start over at $0 in the middle of the year could be a deal-breaker. Are ARP’s higher subsidies worth it?. But 2021 is not a normal year zithromax and birth control. The ARP has made significant changes to subsidy amounts and eligibility, and a lot of people will find that switching plans enables them to best take advantage of the enhanced subsidies. For example.

A person who previously enrolled off-exchange in order to take advantage of the “Silver switch” approach to cost-sharing reduction funding, and who is now eligible zithromax and birth control for a premium subsidy in the exchange. A person who enrolled in a Bronze plan during open enrollment but is now eligible for a $0 premium or low-premium Silver or Gold plan (depending on location) due to income or unemployment compensation. A person who was eligible for cost-sharing reductions but selected a Bronze or Gold plan during open enrollment because the Silver plans were too expensive, but who can now afford the Silver plan due to the extra subsidies (cost-sharing reductions are only available on Silver plans) If you switch plans, will you have to start over at zero?. The good news is that many states, state-run marketplaces, and insurers have zithromax and birth control taken action to ensure that accumulators will transfer to a new plan. (In virtually all cases, this does have to be a new plan with the same insurer — if you switch to a different insurance company, you’ll almost certainly have to start over at $0 on your accumulators.) HealthCare.gov is the exchange/marketplace that’s used in 36 states.

Its official position is that “any consumer who selects a new plan may have their accumulators, such as deductibles, reset to zero.” But insurance commissioners in some of those states have stepped in to require insurers to transfer accumulators, and in other states, all of the insurers have voluntarily agreed to do so. Washington, DC, and 14 states have zithromax and birth control state-run marketplaces, and several of them have announced that insurers will transfer accumulators. Which states are helping with accumulators?. We’ve combed through communications from state-run marketplaces and state insurance commissioners to see which ones have issued guidance on this. But regardless of where you live, your best bet is to reach out to your zithromax and birth control insurance company before you make a plan change.

Find out exactly how they’re handling accumulators during this enrollment window, and if they are transferring accumulators to new plans, make sure that you adhere to whatever requirements they may have in place. That said, here’s what we found in terms of how states and state-run marketplaces are addressing accumulators and mid-year plan changes in 2021. States where all accumulators will transfer as long as your old and new plans are offered by the same insurance company In some cases, these accumulator transfer rules only apply when switching from off-exchange to zithromax and birth control on-exchange. In other cases, they apply to any plan changes, including from one exchange plan to another. Colorado District of Columbia – The marketplace has confirmed that all accumulators will transfer.

Idaho – Idaho only allowed people to switch to a plan offered zithromax and birth control by their current insurer, unless they had a qualifying event. Note that Idaho’s buy antibiotics/ARP enrollment window ended April 30, which is much earlier than the rest of the country. Maryland – Plan changes are limited to upgrades, but the marketplace confirmed that accumulators will transfer. Massachusetts — All insurers have agreed to transfer accumulators for people switching zithromax and birth control from off-exchange to on-exchange plans Michigan – Deductibles will transfer, although some insurers will only allow this if you’re upgrading your plan. (Two insurers are allowing deductible transfers even if you’re switching from a different insurer’s plan.) Minnesota – Minnesota is currently not allowing marketplace enrollees to switch plans during the buy antibiotics/ARP enrollment window, although this may change within the next several weeks.

So for now, the accumulator transfers only apply to people switching from an off-exchange plan to an on-exchange plan. All four of the zithromax and birth control insurers that offer both on-exchange and off-exchange plans have agreed to transfer accumulators to the on-exchange plans. New Mexico New York Tennessee Vermont – Like Minnesota, Vermont is currently only allowing people to switch from off-exchange (full-cost individual direct enrollment) to on-exchange plans. Accumulators will transfer for those plan changes. West Virginia — The WV Office of the Insurance zithromax and birth control Commissioner confirmed that both insurers are transferring accumulators, with the exception of a transfer between an HSA-qualified plan and a non-HSA-qualified plan (mainly due to IRS regulations for how HSA-qualified plans must handle out-of-pocket costs).

Wisconsin – Covering Wisconsin, a nonprofit enrollment assistance organization, notes that accumulators will not transfer if people select a plan from a different insurer, which is to be expected. In some states, rules are slightly more complicated Alaska – Deductibles will reset to $0 if a policyholder is switching from off-exchange to on-exchange (or vice-versa), but will not reset if the move is from one exchange plan to another, with the same insurer. California – The marketplace has confirmed that insurers will transfer accumulators for plan holders switching from an off-exchange plan to an on-exchange plan or from one exchange plan to another, as long as zithromax and birth control they stay with the same insurance company and the same type of managed care plan (ie, HMO to HMO, or PPO to PPO). New Jersey – Deductibles will transfer, possibly even to a new insurer (which is fairly unique. We aren’t aware of this elsewhere, other than the two Michigan insurers that are offering it).

But additional zithromax and birth control out-of-pocket spending will not transfer to the new plan. States where the official word is that ‘it depends’ Several states have addressed accumulator transfers so that consumers know to be aware of them, but are leaving the decision up to the insurers. In these states (listed below), some or all of the insurers may be offering accumulator transfers, but consumers should definitely ask their insurer how this will work before making the decision to switch plans. Connecticut Nevada New Hampshire Ohio Montana North Dakota — the ND Insurance Department is recommending that consumers reach out to their insurance company to see how this is being handled zithromax and birth control. Oregon — As of April, the state was still working with insurers to sort out an approach for people switching from off-exchange to on-exchange, but according to OregonHealthCare.gov, accumulators will not transfer when a person switches from one marketplace plan to another Pennsylvania Rhode Island – There are two insurers that offer plans in Rhode Island’s marketplace.

One has agreed to transfer accumulators and one has not, but the marketplace is still working to address this and it’s possible both insurers could end up allowing accumulators to transfer. Washington States where the official word is that accumulators will not transfer Some states zithromax and birth control have fairly clearly indicated that insurers will not transfer accumulators if policyholders make a plan change. But even in these states, it’s still worth checking with a specific insurer to see what approach they’re taking, as some are still developing their approach during this unique time. Illinois Virginia What if my state’s not listed?. Insurance departments in the rest of the states haven’t put out any official guidance or bulletins regarding accumulator transfers, although these may still be forthcoming as the buy antibiotics/ARP zithromax and birth control window progresses.

Keep in mind that it will be July in most states before the ARP’s benefits are available for people receiving unemployment compensation in 2021, so this is still very much a work in progress and likely to evolve over time. States that have not yet issued specific guidance or clarified insurers positions on accumulator transfers include. Alabama Arizona Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Mississippi Missouri Nebraska North zithromax and birth control Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina South Dakota Texas Utah Wyoming If you’re in one of these states, your insurer may or may not be transferring accumulators when enrollees switch to a new plan in 2021. If you’ve had significant out-of-pocket medical spending so far this year, be sure to reach out to your insurer to see how they’re handling this. And if a representative tells you that accumulators will transfer, it’s a good idea to get confirmation in writing.

And if your insurer initially says no, keep asking over the coming days and zithromax and birth control weeks. We’ve seen some insurers start to offer accumulator transfers after initially stating that they didn’t plan to do so, and it’s possible that other insurers might follow suit. To switch or not to switch?. So what should you do if you’ve already spent some money out-of-pocket this year, and you’re going to zithromax and birth control have to start over at $0 on a new plan?. Maybe you’re enrolled in a grandmothered or grandfathered plan and your insurer simply doesn’t offer plans for sale in the marketplace.

Depending on where you live, this might also be the case if you have an ACA-compliant off-exchange plan, as not all off-exchange insurers sell plans in the exchange. And as noted above, it might also be the case even if you want zithromax and birth control to transfer from one ACA-compliant plan to another. (But check with both the insurer and the insurance department in your state before giving up on accumulator transfers in that situation.) Really, it just comes down to the math. Will the amount you’re going to save due to premium tax credit (and possibly cost-sharing reductions, if you’re eligible for them and switching to a Silver plan) offset the loss you’ll take by having to start over at $0 on your deductible and out-of-pocket exposure?. If you haven’t spent much this year, zithromax and birth control the answer is probably Yes.

If you’ve already met your maximum out-of-pocket for the year, it’s probably going to be a tougher decision. But don’t assume that it’s not worth your while. Depending on the circumstances (especially if you were previously impacted by the “subsidy cliff” and zithromax and birth control are newly eligible for subsidies), your new subsidies might be worth more than you’d be giving up by having to start over with new out-of-pocket costs. And if you’re part of the way toward meeting your deductible on a Bronze plan and are newly eligible for a free or very low-cost Silver plan that includes cost-sharing reductions, you might find that the new plan ultimately saves you money in out-of-pocket costs for the rest of the year, even if your accumulators don’t transfer. Louise Norris is an individual health insurance broker who has been writing about health insurance and health reform since 2006.

She has zithromax and birth control written dozens of opinions and educational pieces about the Affordable Care Act for healthinsurance.org. Her state health insurance marketplace updates are regularly cited by media who cover health reform and by other health insurance experts.It’s been a widely held conclusion in the health insurance industry and among health policy types that one of our biggest hurdles lies with the challenge of getting coverage for “young invincibles” – Americans old enough to vote but under 30. That label itself is tied to a widely held perception that – because of their youth – “twenty-somethings” believe they’re healthy enough that they simply won’t need all of the bells and whistles of comprehensive health insurance (any time soon, at least).As an agent and an avid observer of health insurance trends, I know it’s not that simple. Young adults, in many cases, zithromax discount coupons are keenly zithromax and birth control aware of their need for comprehensive coverage. But – despite various federal and state efforts to make coverage more affordable and accessible (including provisions of the American Rescue Plan) – there are definitely barriers making it difficult for young adults to enter the individual health insurance market.Last week, I spoke with Carolyn Kettig, a young woman who’s determined to get coverage but facing barriers that many young Americans face.

Carolyn Kettig is a professional actor in New York, and has thus far maintained health coverage under her mother’s policy. But that will zithromax and birth control end this summer, when Carolyn turns 26. She shares her story with me here, and I’ve added my own commentary wherever it might help readers in similar situations understand their coverage options.Before we begin, it’s worth noting that because Carolyn lives in New York, she has access to a Basic Health Program. New York and Minnesota are the only states that offer these programs, and they’re an excellent coverage option for people who are eligible to enroll. But if you’re not in New York or Minnesota, you’ve still zithromax and birth control got plenty of options.That’s particularly true now that the American Rescue Plan has been enacted, making premium subsidies larger and more widely available.

For many young people, the American Rescue Plan makes robust coverage much more affordable than it used to be. (Previously, it was common for young people to feel like their only truly affordable health coverage option was a plan with a deductible that may have felt impossibly high).Louise. What’s your zithromax and birth control current insurance situation and how is it changing this year?. What are your options for coverage?. Carolyn.

I’m lucky enough zithromax and birth control to currently be covered by my mother’s health insurance. She has a very generous insurance plan and I’ve been privileged to, thus far, be fully covered. Unfortunately, because I’m turning 26, I’ll be losing coverage this spring.As a professional actor, my early twenties were filled with countless side jobs that supported me as I sought acting work in New York City. None of these jobs ever came with healthcare benefits, which at the time was okay as I was covered by zithromax and birth control my mother’s plan. Three years ago, when I landed my first big theater job, I had the opportunity to join the actor’s union, which among many other wonderful things, provides working actors with comprehensive, affordable health insurance.The only catch, and it’s a fairly large one, is that an actor must work a certain number of weeks in order to qualify.

Even without a zithromax, finding steady work in the theater is difficult. Factor in a zithromax that shutters theaters for over a year and causes the union to hemorrhage money … needless to say, zithromax and birth control healthcare coverage in my industry has become a near impossibility.I’m hopeful that live entertainment will return in a vaccinated world, but until then, I’m doing my best to make enough money to pay my bills. I’m grateful to be employed part-time as a program director for a teen program. My job has kept me afloat during this devastating time, but, unfortunately, does not come with healthcare benefits. I make very little money and live paycheck to zithromax and birth control paycheck, which leaves me relatively few options when it comes to insurance.

I will most likely go with New York State’s Essential Plan, which is the best option for low-income people who make too much money to qualify for Medicaid.Louise. The Essential Plan is New York’s Basic Health Program (BHP), which is available to people earning up to 200% of the poverty level. (For a single person in 2021, that amounts to $25,760.) The Affordable Care Act allowed for the creation of BHPs, but New York and Minnesota are the only states that have opted to establish them.The Essential Plan provides robust health coverage with zithromax and birth control no monthly premium, and it has much lower cost-sharing than we typically see in the individual/family health insurance market. The Essential Plan is also being enhanced as of June 2021. Previously, some enrollees had to pay $20/month, and there was an extra premium for dental and vision coverage.

Dental and vision are now zithromax and birth control included at no cost.Louise. How much is the need for coverage weighing on you and other people your age?. Carolyn. I’ve lost sleep zithromax and birth control over this!. It weighs on me heavily.

Having grown up in New York, I have a long history with some of my doctors, most of whom will not accept my new insurance plan. This means that I will either be forced to find new doctors or pay hundreds of dollars out of pocket for routine check-ups.I’m also aware zithromax and birth control that, even with insurance coverage, an unexpected hospital stay could cost me thousands of dollars. It makes me enraged to know that, in an emergency situation, I would avoid going to the hospital because of the cost.Louise. The Essential Plan provides much more robust coverage than people may be used to seeing elsewhere. There is no deductible, emergency zithromax and birth control room visits cost $75, and inpatient hospital stays are only $150 per admission – and these fees are waived altogether for enrollees with income up to 150% of the poverty level, or a little more than $19,000 for a single person.

This is better coverage than most people have even with higher-end employer-sponsored plans.Carolyn. I know that I’m not alone in this. Especially since my generation is now zithromax and birth control living through a global health crisis, I think my peers are more aware than ever before of how broken our healthcare system really is. Moreover, as a white, cisgendered woman from a middle-class background, I’m cognizant of the privilege my identities afford me and deeply disturbed by the ways in which our healthcare system disregards and harms BIPOC, low-income families, LGBTQIA+ youth, and undocumented workers (many of whom are essential workers and yet have little access to healthcare coverage) among many others. Alongside the climate crisis and the fight for racial equality, I believe that healthcare reform will dominate the American political landscape for the next few decades.Louise.

I agree that our healthcare zithromax and birth control system is in need of extensive reform. The American Rescue Plan, enacted just last month, is the first major change we’ve seen since the Affordable Care Act was signed into law 11 years ago. It includes some substantial improvements designed to make health coverage more affordable and accessible.But these improvements are temporary unless Congress takes additional action to make them permanent. And there are other issues, zithromax and birth control such as the ACA’s family glitch, and the Medicaid coverage gap that exists in the dozen states that have refused to expand Medicaid, that haven’t yet been fixed. Fortunately, lawmakers in Congress are continuing to push forward on these issues, and voters can reach out to their elected officials to express their opinions.Louise.

What do you see as challenges in this situation?. Carolyn. I’ve mentioned many challenges already, but I think chief among them is simply how confusing and difficult it is to make informed choices. Reading about insurance options requires learning an entirely new language and navigating nearly impenetrable websites.Louise. For folks who are confused by the terminology and concepts that go along with health insurance, our glossary is a great resource.

We’ve incorporated plenty of details, since that’s where the nuances always are. And we’ve focused on explaining things using plain language that’s easy to understand.Help from the American Rescue PlanLouise. Are you aware of the changes that the American Rescue Plan has made?. Do you think it will make it easier for you to access coverage?. Carolyn.

I’ve read a bit about the changes made by the American Rescue Plan and am thrilled that this administration is attempting to expand access to healthcare (even though I’d love to see more substantial reform). I don’t think that I will be impacted directly by the bill because I already live in a state that offers an affordable plan for people in my income bracket.Louise. If you lived in another state, the American Rescue Plan would make your coverage more affordable. But you’re correct. Assuming your 2021 income doesn’t exceed 200% of the poverty level (about $25,760), you’ll be eligible for either The Essential Plan or Medicaid in New York, both of which are already robust coverage with no monthly premiums.But for others in a similar situation who live elsewhere, the American Rescue Plan implements a variety of improvements that make it easier for young people to transition to their own coverage.

Among other provisions, the American Rescue Plan:Increases the size of premium subsidies and makes them more widely available.Makes coverage more affordable for young people.Ensures that people who are receiving unemployment compensation this year can enroll in robust coverage without having to worry about the cost.Louise. What do you expect to happen with your coverage this summer?. Do you have a good idea of the plan you’ll be on after you transition away from your mom’s coverage, or is it still up in the air?. Carolyn. Fortunately, through The Actors Fund, I have access to a professional who will guide me through the process of finding a plan, although I’m fairly certain I will end up on the Essential Plan.I’ve been told to begin the process a couple months before I lose coverage, so that’s coming up very soon!.

I also have many friends who are in a similar situation or have already gone through the process, so I expect I’ll be texting them a whole lot. Even though I’m anxious about navigating the system on my own for the first time, I feel well supported as I approach this transition.Louise. As you’re going through this insurance transition, what do you feel are the most important things for other people your age to keep in mind?. Carolyn. I think it’s important to do your research, seek out trusted professionals or peers to guide you, and ask a lot of questions.

The system is designed to be confusing and ultimately benefit insurance companies, so I believe the more questions you ask, the better positioned you’ll be to advocate for yourself. Get acquainted with the vocabulary and make sure you know the basic terms (i.e. Premium, deductible, out of pocket maximum, in-network, enrollment period). And if you’re uninsured for a period of time, know that you can find sliding scale clinics, sliding scale hospital services, and assistance paying for prescription drugs. Your health, both physical and mental, is of utmost importance!.

Are out-of-pocket costs where to get zithromax over the counter you’ve paid http://begopa.de/google-maps/anfahrt-begopa-bochum/ making you think twice?. Unlike plan changes made during open enrollment, plan changes made during the buy antibiotics/ARP enrollment window will take effect mid-year. And for people who have already paid some or all of their deductible and out-of-pocket costs this year, that adds an extra layer of complication to the switch-or-not decision.

Use our updated subsidy calculator to estimate how much you can save on your 2021 health insurance premiums where to get zithromax over the counter. Normally, the general rule of thumb is that if you switch to a new plan mid-year, you’re going to be starting over at $0 on the new plan’s deductible and out-of-pocket expenses. (These are called accumulators, since it’s a running total of the expenses you’ve accumulated toward your out-of-pocket maximum).

For someone whose accumulators have already amounted to a sizable sum of money this year, where to get zithromax over the counter having to start over at $0 in the middle of the year could be a deal-breaker. Are ARP’s higher subsidies worth it?. But 2021 is not a normal year.

The ARP has made significant changes to subsidy amounts and eligibility, and a where to get zithromax over the counter lot of people will find that switching plans enables them to best take advantage of the enhanced subsidies. For example. A person who previously enrolled off-exchange in order to take advantage of the “Silver switch” approach to cost-sharing reduction funding, and who is now eligible for a premium subsidy in the exchange.

A person who enrolled in a Bronze plan during open enrollment but is now eligible for a $0 premium or low-premium Silver or Gold plan (depending on location) due to where to get zithromax over the counter income or unemployment compensation. A person who was eligible for cost-sharing reductions but selected a Bronze or Gold plan during open enrollment because the Silver plans were too expensive, but who can now afford the Silver plan due to the extra subsidies (cost-sharing reductions are only available on Silver plans) If you switch plans, will you have to start over at zero?. The good news is that many states, state-run marketplaces, and insurers have taken action to ensure that accumulators will transfer to a new plan.

(In virtually all cases, this does have to be a new plan with the same insurer — if you switch to a different insurance company, you’ll almost certainly have to start over at $0 on your accumulators.) HealthCare.gov is the exchange/marketplace where to get zithromax over the counter that’s used in 36 states. Its official position is that “any consumer who selects a new plan may have their accumulators, such as deductibles, reset to zero.” But insurance commissioners in some of those states have stepped in to require insurers to transfer accumulators, and in other states, all of the insurers have voluntarily agreed to do so. Washington, DC, and 14 states have state-run marketplaces, and several of them have announced that insurers will transfer accumulators.

Which states are helping with accumulators? where to get zithromax over the counter. We’ve combed through communications from state-run marketplaces and state insurance commissioners to see which ones have issued guidance on this. But regardless of where you live, your best bet is to reach out to your insurance company before you make a plan change.

Find out exactly how they’re handling accumulators during this enrollment window, where to get zithromax over the counter and if they are transferring accumulators to new plans, make sure that you adhere to whatever requirements they may have in place. That said, here’s what we found in terms of how states and state-run marketplaces are addressing accumulators and mid-year plan changes in 2021. States where all accumulators will transfer as long as your old and new plans are offered by the same insurance company In some cases, these accumulator transfer rules only apply when switching from off-exchange to on-exchange.

In other cases, they apply to any plan changes, including from one exchange plan to where to get zithromax over the counter another. Colorado District of Columbia – The marketplace has confirmed that all accumulators will transfer. Idaho – Idaho only allowed people to switch to a plan offered by their current insurer, unless they had a qualifying event.

Note that Idaho’s buy antibiotics/ARP enrollment window ended April 30, which is much earlier than the rest of where to get zithromax over the counter the country. Maryland – Plan changes are limited to upgrades, but the marketplace confirmed that accumulators will transfer. Massachusetts — All insurers have agreed to transfer accumulators for people switching from off-exchange to on-exchange plans Michigan – Deductibles will transfer, although some insurers will only allow this if you’re upgrading your plan.

(Two insurers are allowing deductible transfers even if you’re switching from a different insurer’s plan.) Minnesota – Minnesota is currently not allowing marketplace enrollees to switch plans during the buy antibiotics/ARP enrollment window, although where to get zithromax over the counter this may change within the next several weeks. So for now, the accumulator transfers only apply to people switching from an off-exchange plan to an on-exchange plan. All four of the insurers that offer both on-exchange and off-exchange plans have agreed to transfer accumulators to the on-exchange plans.

New Mexico New York Tennessee Vermont – where to get zithromax over the counter Like Minnesota, Vermont is currently only allowing people to switch from off-exchange (full-cost individual direct enrollment) to on-exchange plans. Accumulators will transfer for those plan changes. West Virginia — The WV Office of the Insurance Commissioner confirmed that both insurers are transferring accumulators, with the exception of a transfer between an HSA-qualified plan and a non-HSA-qualified plan (mainly due to IRS regulations for how HSA-qualified plans must handle out-of-pocket costs).

Wisconsin – Covering Wisconsin, a nonprofit enrollment assistance organization, where to get zithromax over the counter notes that accumulators will not transfer if people select a plan from a different insurer, which is to be expected. In some states, rules are slightly more complicated Alaska – Deductibles will reset to $0 if a policyholder is switching from off-exchange to on-exchange (or vice-versa), but will not reset if the move is from one exchange plan to another, with the same insurer. California – The marketplace has confirmed that insurers will transfer accumulators for plan holders switching from an off-exchange plan to an on-exchange plan or from one exchange plan to another, as long as they stay with the same insurance company and the same type of managed care plan (ie, HMO to HMO, or PPO to PPO).

New Jersey – Deductibles will transfer, possibly even to where to get zithromax over the counter a new insurer (which is fairly unique. We aren’t aware of this elsewhere, other than the two Michigan insurers that are offering it). But additional out-of-pocket spending will not transfer to the new plan.

States where the official word is that ‘it depends’ Several states have addressed accumulator transfers so where to get zithromax over the counter that consumers know to be aware of them, but are leaving the decision up to the insurers. In these states (listed below), some or all of the insurers may be offering accumulator transfers, but consumers should definitely ask their insurer how this will work before making the decision to switch plans. Connecticut Nevada New Hampshire Ohio Montana North Dakota — the ND Insurance Department is recommending that consumers reach out to their insurance company to see how this is being handled.

Oregon — As of where to get zithromax over the counter April, the state was still working with insurers to sort out an approach for people switching from off-exchange to on-exchange, but according to OregonHealthCare.gov, accumulators will not transfer when a person switches from one marketplace plan to another Pennsylvania Rhode Island – There are two insurers that offer plans in Rhode Island’s marketplace. One has agreed to transfer accumulators and one has not, but the marketplace is still working to address this and it’s possible both insurers could end up allowing accumulators to transfer. Washington States where the official word is that accumulators will not transfer Some states have fairly clearly indicated that insurers will not transfer accumulators if policyholders make a plan change.

But even in these states, it’s still worth checking with a specific insurer to see what approach they’re taking, as some are still where to get zithromax over the counter developing their approach during this unique time. Illinois Virginia What if my state’s not listed?. Insurance departments in the rest of the states haven’t put out any official guidance or bulletins regarding accumulator transfers, although these may still be forthcoming as the buy antibiotics/ARP window progresses.

Keep in mind that it will be July in most states before the ARP’s where to get zithromax over the counter benefits are available for people receiving unemployment compensation in 2021, so this is still very much a work in progress and likely to evolve over time. States that have not yet issued specific guidance or clarified insurers positions on accumulator transfers include. Alabama Arizona Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Mississippi Missouri Nebraska North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina South Dakota Texas Utah Wyoming If you’re in one of these states, your insurer may or may not be transferring accumulators when enrollees switch to a new plan in 2021.

If you’ve had significant out-of-pocket medical spending so far this year, where to get zithromax over the counter be sure to reach out to your insurer to see how they’re handling this. And if a representative tells you that accumulators will transfer, it’s a good idea to get confirmation in writing. And if your insurer initially says no, keep asking over the coming days and weeks.

We’ve seen some insurers start to offer where to get zithromax over the counter accumulator transfers after initially stating that they didn’t plan to do so, and it’s possible that other insurers might follow suit. To switch or not to switch?. So what should you do if you’ve already spent some money out-of-pocket this year, and you’re going to have to start over at $0 on a new plan?.

Maybe you’re enrolled in a grandmothered or grandfathered plan and your insurer where to get zithromax over the counter simply doesn’t offer plans for sale in the marketplace. Depending on where you live, this might also be the case if you have an ACA-compliant off-exchange plan, as not all off-exchange insurers sell plans in the exchange. And as noted above, it might also be the case even if you want to transfer from one ACA-compliant plan to another.

(But check with both the insurer and the insurance department in your state before giving up on accumulator transfers in that situation.) Really, it just comes down where to get zithromax over the counter to the math. Will the amount you’re going to save due to premium tax credit (and possibly cost-sharing reductions, if you’re eligible for them and switching to a Silver plan) offset the loss you’ll take by having to start over at $0 on your deductible and out-of-pocket exposure?. If you haven’t spent much this year, the answer is probably Yes.

If you’ve where to get zithromax over the counter already met your maximum out-of-pocket for the year, it’s probably going to be a tougher decision. But don’t assume that it’s not worth your while. Depending on the circumstances (especially if you were previously impacted by the “subsidy cliff” and are newly eligible for subsidies), your new subsidies might be worth more than you’d be giving up by having to start over with new out-of-pocket costs.

And if you’re part of the way toward meeting your deductible on a Bronze plan and are newly eligible for a free or very low-cost Silver plan that includes cost-sharing reductions, you where to get zithromax over the counter might find that the new plan ultimately saves you money in out-of-pocket costs for the rest of the year, even if your accumulators don’t transfer. Louise Norris is an individual health insurance broker who has been writing about health insurance and health reform since 2006. She has written dozens of opinions and educational pieces about the Affordable Care Act for healthinsurance.org.

Her state health insurance marketplace updates are regularly cited where to get zithromax over the counter by media who cover health reform and by other health insurance experts.It’s been a widely held conclusion in the health insurance industry and among health policy types that one of our biggest hurdles lies with the challenge of getting coverage for “young invincibles” – Americans old enough to vote but under 30. That label itself is tied to a widely held perception that – because of their youth – “twenty-somethings” believe they’re healthy enough that they simply won’t need all of the bells and whistles of comprehensive health insurance (any time soon, at least).As an agent and an avid observer of health insurance trends, I know it’s not that simple. Young adults, in many cases, are keenly aware of their need for comprehensive coverage.

But – despite various federal and state efforts to make coverage more affordable and accessible (including provisions of the American Rescue Plan) – there are definitely barriers making it where to get zithromax over the counter difficult for young adults to enter the individual health insurance market.Last week, I spoke with Carolyn Kettig, a young woman who’s determined to get coverage but facing barriers that many young Americans face. Carolyn Kettig is a professional actor in New York, and has thus far maintained health coverage under her mother’s policy. But that will end this summer, when Carolyn turns 26.

She shares her story with me here, and I’ve added my own commentary wherever it might help readers in similar situations understand their coverage options.Before we begin, it’s worth noting that because Carolyn lives in New York, she has access where to get zithromax over the counter to a Basic Health Program. New York and Minnesota are the only states that offer these programs, and they’re an excellent coverage option for people who are eligible to enroll. But if you’re not in New York or Minnesota, you’ve still got plenty of options.That’s particularly true now that the American Rescue Plan has been enacted, making premium subsidies larger and more widely available.

For many where to get zithromax over the counter young people, the American Rescue Plan makes robust coverage much more affordable than it used to be. (Previously, it was common for young people to feel like their only truly affordable health coverage option was a plan with a deductible that may have felt impossibly high).Louise. What’s your current insurance situation and how is it changing this year?.

What are your options where to get zithromax over the counter for coverage?. Carolyn. I’m lucky enough to currently be covered by my mother’s health insurance.

She has a very generous insurance plan and I’ve been privileged to, thus far, be fully covered where to get zithromax over the counter. Unfortunately, because I’m turning 26, I’ll be losing coverage this spring.As a professional actor, my early twenties were filled with countless side jobs that supported me as I sought acting work in New York City. None of these jobs ever came with healthcare benefits, which at the time was okay as I was covered by my mother’s plan.

Three years ago, when I landed my first big theater job, I had the opportunity to join the actor’s union, which among many other wonderful things, provides working actors with comprehensive, affordable health insurance.The only catch, and it’s a fairly large one, is that an actor must work a certain number of where to get zithromax over the counter weeks in order to qualify. Even without a zithromax, finding steady work in the theater is difficult. Factor in a zithromax that shutters theaters for over a year and causes the union to hemorrhage money … needless to say, healthcare coverage in my industry has become a near impossibility.I’m hopeful that live entertainment will return in a vaccinated world, but until then, I’m doing my best to make enough money to pay my bills.

I’m grateful to be employed part-time as where to get zithromax over the counter a program director for a teen program. My job has kept me afloat during this devastating time, but, unfortunately, does not come with healthcare benefits. I make very little money and live paycheck to paycheck, which leaves me relatively few options when it comes to insurance.

I will most likely go with New York State’s Essential Plan, which is where to get zithromax over the counter the best option for low-income people who make too much money to qualify for Medicaid.Louise. The Essential Plan is New York’s Basic Health Program (BHP), which is available to people earning up to 200% of the poverty level. (For a single person in 2021, that amounts to $25,760.) The Affordable Care Act allowed for the creation of BHPs, but New York and Minnesota are the only states that have opted to establish them.The Essential Plan provides robust health coverage with no monthly premium, and it has much lower cost-sharing than we typically see in the individual/family health insurance market.

The Essential Plan is also where to get zithromax over the counter being enhanced as of June 2021. Previously, some enrollees had to pay $20/month, and there was an extra premium for dental and vision coverage. Dental and vision are now included at no cost.Louise.

How much is the need for coverage weighing on you and other where to get zithromax over the counter people your age?. Carolyn. I’ve lost sleep over this!.

It weighs on me where to get zithromax over the counter heavily. Having grown up in New York, I have a long history with some of my doctors, most of whom will not accept my new insurance plan. This means that I will either be forced to find new doctors or pay hundreds of dollars out of pocket for routine check-ups.I’m also aware that, even with insurance coverage, an unexpected hospital stay could cost me thousands of dollars.

It makes me enraged to where to get zithromax over the counter know that, in an emergency situation, I would avoid going to the hospital because of the cost.Louise. The Essential Plan provides much more robust coverage than people may be used to seeing elsewhere. There is no deductible, emergency room visits cost $75, and inpatient hospital stays are only $150 per admission – and these fees are waived altogether for enrollees with income up to 150% of the poverty level, or a little more than $19,000 for a single person.

This is where to get zithromax over the counter better coverage than most people have even with higher-end employer-sponsored plans.Carolyn. I know that I’m not alone in this. Especially since my generation is now living through a global health crisis, I think my peers are more aware than ever before of how broken our healthcare system really is.

Moreover, as a white, cisgendered woman from a middle-class background, I’m cognizant of the where to get zithromax over the counter privilege my identities afford me and deeply disturbed by the ways in which our healthcare system disregards and harms BIPOC, low-income families, LGBTQIA+ youth, and undocumented workers (many of whom are essential workers and yet have little access to healthcare coverage) among many others. Alongside the climate crisis and the fight for racial equality, I believe that healthcare reform will dominate the American political landscape for the next few decades.Louise. I agree that our healthcare system is in need of extensive reform.

The American Rescue Plan, enacted just last month, is the first major change where to get zithromax over the counter we’ve seen since the Affordable Care Act was signed into law 11 years ago. It includes some substantial improvements designed to make health coverage more affordable and accessible.But these improvements are temporary unless Congress takes additional action to make them permanent. And there are other issues, such as the ACA’s family glitch, and the Medicaid coverage gap that exists in the dozen states that have refused to expand Medicaid, that haven’t yet been fixed.

Fortunately, lawmakers in Congress are continuing to push forward on these issues, and voters can reach out to their elected officials to where to get zithromax over the counter express their opinions.Louise. What do you see as challenges in this situation?. Carolyn.

I’ve mentioned many challenges already, but I think chief among them is simply how confusing and difficult where to get zithromax over the counter it is to make informed choices. Reading about insurance options requires learning an entirely new language and navigating nearly impenetrable websites.Louise. For folks who are confused by the terminology and concepts that go along with health insurance, our glossary is a great resource.

We’ve incorporated plenty of details, since that’s where to get zithromax over the counter where the nuances always are. And we’ve focused on explaining things using plain language that’s easy to understand.Help from the American Rescue PlanLouise. Are you aware of the changes that the American Rescue Plan has made?.

Do you think it will make it where to get zithromax over the counter easier for you to access coverage?. Carolyn. I’ve read a bit about the changes made by the American Rescue Plan and am thrilled that this administration is attempting to expand access to healthcare (even though I’d love to see more substantial reform).

I don’t think that I will be impacted directly by the bill because I already live in a state that where to get zithromax over the counter offers an affordable plan for people in my income bracket.Louise. If you lived in another state, the American Rescue Plan would make your coverage more affordable. But you’re correct.

Assuming your 2021 income doesn’t exceed 200% of the poverty level (about $25,760), you’ll be eligible for either The Essential where to get zithromax over the counter Plan or Medicaid in New York, both of which are already robust coverage with no monthly premiums.But for others in a similar situation who live elsewhere, the American Rescue Plan implements a variety of improvements that make it easier for young people to transition to their own coverage. Among other provisions, the American Rescue Plan:Increases the size of premium subsidies and makes them more widely available.Makes coverage more affordable for young people.Ensures that people who are receiving unemployment compensation this year can enroll in robust coverage without having to worry about the cost.Louise. What do you expect to happen with your coverage this summer?.

Do you have a good idea of the plan you’ll be on where to get zithromax over the counter after you transition away from your mom’s coverage, or is it still up in the air?. Carolyn. Fortunately, through The Actors Fund, I have access to a professional who will guide me through the process of finding a plan, although I’m fairly certain I will end up on the Essential Plan.I’ve been told to begin the process a couple months before I lose coverage, so that’s coming up very soon!.

I also have many friends who are in a similar situation or have already gone through the process, where to get zithromax over the counter so I expect I’ll be texting them a whole lot. Even though I’m anxious about navigating the system on my own for the first time, I feel well supported as I approach this transition.Louise. As you’re going through this insurance transition, what do you feel are the most important things for other people your age to keep in mind?.

Carolyn. I think it’s important to do your research, seek out trusted professionals or peers to guide you, and ask a lot of questions. The system is designed to be confusing and ultimately benefit insurance companies, so I believe the more questions you ask, the better positioned you’ll be to advocate for yourself.

Get acquainted with the vocabulary and make sure you know the basic terms (i.e. Premium, deductible, out of pocket maximum, in-network, enrollment period). And if you’re uninsured for a period of time, know that you can find sliding scale clinics, sliding scale hospital services, and assistance paying for prescription drugs.

Your health, both physical and mental, is of utmost importance!. Louise. The advice to seek out assistance and ask lots of questions is spot-on.

There are no silly questions, and any question you might have about health insurance is certainly shared by plenty of other people.Thanks to the American Rescue Plan, there has never been a better time to be transitioning to your own health insurance policy. And even if you’re not experiencing a qualifying event (such as aging off of a parent’s health insurance policy), there’s a buy antibiotics-related enrollment window that runs through August 15 in most states, giving people an opportunity to enroll and take advantage of the newly enhanced premium subsidies.And in every community, there are navigators, enrollment counselors, and health insurance brokers who can help you pick a plan and answer any questions you might have. We also have an extensive collection of FAQs, including several that are specific to young adults.Louise Norris is an individual health insurance broker who has been writing about health insurance and health reform since 2006.

Zithromax for impetigo

Delegates attending zithromax for impetigo an international meeting meant to protect Antarctic ocean life http://edgebroadcastingnetwork.com/about/ dashed conservationists' hopes for new marine protected areas in the Southern Ocean. The Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) concluded Friday after a week of virtual negotiations among its 26 member nations. It declined zithromax for impetigo to approve three proposals for marine protected areas near Antarctica. The commission, established in 1982 as part of the Antarctic Treaty System, is charged with conserving marine life around the southern continent and sustainably managing the region's fish stocks. Those responsibilities include the power to designate marine protected areas, or MPAs, around Antarctica, if all member states collectively agree.

So far, there are just zithromax for impetigo two in existence. One in the Ross Sea and one around the South Orkney Islands north of the Antarctic Peninsula. This year's meeting included proposals for three additional MPAs. One off the coast of East Antarctica, one in the Weddell Sea and one around the Antarctic Peninsula zithromax for impetigo. Scientists warn that a combination of climate change, fishing and other human activities around Antarctica could be disrupting the region's delicate ecosystems.

The Antarctic Peninsula in particular is a region that may be especially vulnerable to human disturbances in the coming decades, researchers say (Climatewire, Oct. 26). For decades, the peninsula was one of the fastest-warming parts of the globe. In recent years, the warming trend has dampened, likely due in part to atmospheric changes caused by the recovery of the Antarctic ozone hole. Still, temperatures there have already risen substantially — this year brought record-high temperatures to the peninsula — and scientists expect the region to continue heating up in the coming decades.

As the waters warm and Antarctic sea ice declines, researchers are concerned that krill populations around the peninsula could start to shrink. These tiny, shrimplike creatures form the backbone of the Antarctic ecosystem, providing food for everything from whales to penguins. At the same time, krill fishing around the peninsula is on the rise. Some scientists have expressed concern that the combination of increased fishing and climate change could be a major threat to Antarctic marine life. A marine protected area, according to some, could help reduce the risk of overfishing and protect vital krill populations.

Earlier this month, a group of nine scientists published a comment in the journal Nature urging CCAMLR delegates to adopt the proposed Antarctic Peninsula MPA. The meeting concluded Friday without designating any new MPAs. All the proposed MPAs had been on the table for the past several years. Each year, they've all fallen short of the consensus needed to pass them. That's despite a show of support from most member nations this year, according to Andrea Kavanagh, director of Antarctic and Southern Ocean conservation work at the Pew Charitable Trusts, which advocates for more Southern Ocean MPAs.

Kavanagh attended the virtual proceedings last week. The MPAs failed to gain the necessary support from Russia and China, she said, pointing to nations that have blocked proposed MPAs in the past. But Kavanagh added that there may be hope for progress next year, which will be CCAMLR's 40th meeting, and the 60th anniversary of the Antarctic Treaty System. "[A]lthough no MPA designations took place this year, Norway and Uruguay signed on as new co-sponsors of the East Antarctic MPA, while Australia and Uruguay did the same for the Weddell Sea MPA," Kavanagh said in an email to E&E News. "It is some progress and I hope it sets us up for an increased diplomatic outreach at the highest levels to get these done in 2021." Reprinted from Climatewire with permission from E&E News.

E&E provides daily coverage of essential energy and environmental news at www.eenews.net.Psychedelics are psychoactive substances that historically have attracted exaggerations of benefits as well as alarmism. As with most subjects that bring out extreme views, the scientific data provide a more grounded perspective. Sometimes, the scientific data require further clarification. We are responding to a thought-provoking opinion piece by Eddie Jacobs published on October 11, 2020 entitled “What if a Pill Can Change Your Politics or Religious Beliefs?. Some could mistakenly take away from the piece an unrealistic impression that is not supported by the scientific data.

We worry that this may lead to alarmist reactions. Jacobs’ piece raises ethical questions regarding emerging research suggesting psychedelics may be effective psychiatric treatments. Specifically, the concern is that psychedelic therapy could shift patients’ political beliefs “in one direction along the political spectrum” or “change [their] religious beliefs.” We agree that as with any emerging medical treatment, psychedelic therapy prompts important ethical considerations. However, we believe that the possibility implied in the headline––that psychedelics prompt substantial change in political and religious beliefs or affiliations––is not supported by the current scientific data. To be clear, Jacobs did not mention affiliations, but we believe readers might reasonably take away this interpretation.

We suggest that there is no evidence that people change political or religious affiliations from psychedelic treatments, and current evidence for other kinds of belief changes is weak. Below, we address the three major studies mentioned in the original article. The concern about political beliefs largely rests on evidence from a small pilot study of psilocybin for treating depression. The study showed an average reduction on a measure of “authoritarianism” from baseline to one week after psilocybin in seven people. Authoritarianism, as it is operationalized here using five questions that were reduced from the original version of the scale, likely does not fit neatly into a particular political party.

Many people, for example, would likely disagree with the scale item “The law should always be obeyed, even if a particular law is wrong,” regardless of political affiliation. It is also not clear that a reduction in authoritarianism (or increase in libertarianism or social/moral liberalism, the other end of the scale spectrum) holds a relation to present political affiliations. There are abundant historical examples of both left-wing and right-wing authoritarian governments (for example, communism and fascism, respectively). Moreover, in a country such as the United States, the major left-and right-leaning parties have generally had no universal leaning toward either individual freedom or state control. The position taken along this continuum is highly dependent on the subject (for example, business regulation, abortion, gun control, social constraints on sexual behavior).

In fact, the developers of the scale in question preferred not to use the term “liberal” in reference to the scale because that term had a political meaning in the United States that went beyond what the scale measures. Beyond the theoretical issues with mapping authoritarianism onto present political parties, there are also statistical concerns with this study. The finding about reduced authoritarianism barely met the threshold of significance –– and with a one-tailed t-test. A one-tailed test provides a lower standard for achieving significance compared to the much more common two-tailed test. It is unclear if the reduction would have been significant with a two-tailed test.

In any case, the effect did not last. At the 7–12 month follow-up the decrease was not significant, even according to the lower standards of the one-tailed test. Jacobs’ piece alluded to another study about political beliefs, a 1971 study exploring the association between LSD increased liberalism. This study compared three groups. 1) people who had taken LSD as a medical treatment, 2) people who had taken LSD on their own, and 3) people who had not used LSD.

Only those who had taken LSD on their own indicated more support for policies like “individual freedom” and “foreign policy liberalism” compared to those who had not taken LSD. It is possible that those who were willing to take LSD outside of medical treatment may have already been more influenced by the liberal hippie movement that encouraged these beliefs at that time (Jacobs notes that this is correlational and not causal data). Importantly, no differences were found in this study between the political beliefs of those who received LSD under medical treatment compared to those who did not take LSD. Therefore, this study actually suggests that medical psychedelic treatments do not alter political beliefs!. In terms of religious beliefs, Jacobs’ piece points to a concern about belief change on the basis of a survey study by our group at Johns Hopkins.

This survey specifically recruited individuals who had a “God encounter experience” after taking a psychedelic outside of a research context. Before having such an experience during their psychedelic session, 21 percent retrospectively identified as atheist, whereas only 8 percent did after the experience. This decrease was accompanied by a decrease in identification with major religions, alongside increases in spiritual types of self-identification. Crucially though, this study was in no way representative of the general public, as only people who reported encountering “God” or a similar phenomenon were included in the study. This was a very specific sample of people reporting a special kind of experience or interpretation of experience.

The study cannot provide an estimate of population rates. Belief changes of a religious type would, of course, be massively inflated in this sample, and it is therefore not appropriate to draw generalized conclusions about belief change from psychedelic treatments based on these data. Lastly, the piece cites the observation that under clinical conditions psychedelics increase, on average, a personality trait called openness to experience, a finding first reported by our group at Johns Hopkins and now replicated by others. Unlike the political and religious effects, this phenomenon appears more robust. However, while psychedelics might be unique in their ability to prompt a change in a personality trait with a short-term clinical procedure, they are not the only clinical intervention that can cause changes in personality traits.

A large meta-analysis of over 200 published studies examining the effect of psychiatric treatments on personality traits found that personality was indeed changed. Regardless of whether the intervention was a psychotherapy or a medication such as a traditional antidepressant drug, these changes reached a moderate effect size for increases in the trait of emotional stability, similar to the effect size observed for the increase in personality openness to experience from psilocybin. Lastly, the correlation between openness to experience and liberal political views is small, accounting for only around 2 percent of the relationship between the two variables. In other words, the pathway from psychedelics through openness to experience to political belief change is, for all practical purposes, negligible. While data from studies are always paramount, we note that in the first author’s experience interacting with hundreds of psilocybin study participants, he does not recall any spontaneous claims of changed political or religious affiliation in either direction.

Our primary point here is that that existing data do not suggest that meaningful changes in religious or political beliefs are likely from psychedelic therapy––and certainly not changes in political or religious affiliation. There is some evidence that psychedelic therapy can prompt changes in one’s sense of spirituality, but this term is so broadly and variously defined that it does not even necessarily relate to supernatural beliefs, and it can refer to things like one’s values or sense of connection. As with many interventions, there are cases in which individuals change in their values, attitudes and/or beliefs after a psychedelic experience. The frequency and magnitude of these occurrences are empirical questions for future research to address, but the current data simply do not support the idea that psychedelic treatments result in meaningful changes in political or religious beliefs or affiliation. Psychedelic medicine, like any new treatment, no doubt raises important and challenging ethical issues.

Consent procedures in psychedelic trials by our research group (and by other groups to our knowledge) already warn that personality and attitude changes are a possibility. Of course, this should also be done with patients if psychedelics are approved as medicine. Psychedelic experiences are sometimes held as among the most meaningful in one’s life, and may be interpreted to have philosophical or spiritual import, likely depending on the orientation of the participant. Such effects present the opportunity for ethical pitfalls by clinicians. These and other challenges will call for important contributions from ethicists.

However, we must also be careful to keep any given concern in perspective and convey realistic risks to the public and patients. From this perspective, we believe, based on the data, that major shifts in political or religious orientation or beliefs are not among the likely risks associated with this treatment. As psychedelic researchers, we believe it is important to remain vigilant against excesses in enthusiasm as well as alarmism.In 1878 in Sweden, a 10th-century Viking warrior was discovered in a grave packed with weapons, hinting at high military status. The assumption for the next century was that this individual was male. Questions about the warrior’s sex arose in 1970s, and DNA analysis conclusively upended the belief in 2017, showing that the grave’s occupant was female.

The sex determination took so long largely because modern assumptions about gender roles—in this case, that all high-status warriors are men–got in the way of the science. Across the Atlantic in the Americas, early human burial sites are revealing a similar pattern. Applying modern assumptions about gender roles can lead to misconceptions. In findings published on November 4 in Science Advances, Randall Haas, an anthropologist at the University of California, Davis, and his colleagues describe a 9,000-year-old burial site for a young female individual interred with big-game-hunting tools. When the researchers analyzed this site with 17 others in the American continents, they found what they call “parity” between male and female individuals with hunting roles.

The results bury a too broad generalization about early people. That men were hunters and women were “gatherers.” Pamela Geller, an associate professor of anthropology at the University of Miami, who was not involved in the study, says the findings “substantiate what feminist scholars have been saying for several decades” about early female roles as hunters. The newly identified female hunter was found in one of two Andean burial sites that Haas and his colleagues excavated near Lake Titicaca in southern Peru. One contained the remains of a man who was aged 25 to 30 years at death and interred with a few hunting-associated items. The other remains were of a teenager who “was clearly ceremoniously laid to rest with a set of tools that had a lot of utility,” Haas says.

As with the Viking warrior, the researchers initially assumed the second grave contained a male individual because of the careful interment with costly tools associated with hunting large animals such as deer and vicuña. A close look at the scant bone samples from the second grave suggested that the person’s sex was female, however. Analysis of proteins from the teeth, which are present in a sex-based pattern, confirmed it. That recognition led the team to analyze information from all known burial sites in the Americas for individuals whose sex had been determined and where hunting tools were present. Among 18 sites meeting these criteria, 15 contained 16 remains identified as male, and 10 had 11 remains identified as female.

The scientists ran models with this information to estimate how likely an individual was to be female, given a range of female participation in hunting from 0 to 100 percent. They found that with the rate of female skeletons associated with hunting tools, female and male individuals were equally likely to be hunters. The implication was that equal-opportunity hunting roles might have been common among early humans in the Americas. The blending of hunting roles regardless of sex is not especially surprising, says Kathleen Sterling, an associate professor of anthropology at Binghamton University, State University of New York, who was not involved in the study. Individual skill and strength likely did not matter as much as the number of participants, for example, in efforts to drive animals off a cliff or into a trap.

Regardless of the sex of the skeletons, this work does not address how these cultures defined or assigned gender, says Charlotte Hedenstierna-Jonson, a senior researcher at the department of archaeology and ancient history at Uppsala University in Sweden. She was not involved in the new paper but was first author of the 2017 study on the Viking warrior DNA. Today’s humans can determine biological sex with modern analyses, she says, but modern eyes may see gender very differently from how early humans did. €œWe must remember that it is our understanding that we’re processing, not theirs,” when considering gender roles in early human societies, she says. Researchers have “at some level” projected sex onto behavior in inaccurate ways for early humans in the Americas, Haas says.

What is important is challenging these assumptions with actual observation, he says, because “through that process, we arrive closer to the truth.”I’m a compulsive journal-scribbler. This habit, which goes back to my teens, has proved useful to my career. All my articles and books start as journal entries. But my motivation is not merely professional. If I don’t record my thoughts, I won’t remember them, and they won’t matter.

So I fear. This feeling has grown as I’ve aged. Compounding my concern is the possibility—no, probability—that one day humanity and all its residues will vanish. Our works of science, mathematics, philosophy, art, music and, yes, journalism will slip back into the void whence they came. Everything we have thought and done will be for naught.

If nothing about us endures, if nothing is remembered, we might as well never have existed. No wonder so many of us, even in this age of scientific materialism, still believe in God. An immortal, omniscient being watches over each and every one of us, and not just celebrities like Einstein and Beyonce. He/she/it/they also surely remembers us after we’re gone, like a cosmic backup device with infinite storage capacity. Supposedly.

If this divine entity does not exist, and someday all traces of us disappear forever, in what sense do our lives matter?. Scientists are not immune to such anxieties. Existential angst, I suspect, accounts for physicists’ belief in conservation of information. I first heard about this proposition years ago, but I’ve only given it serious consideration over the last few months, which I’ve spent trying to learn quantum mechanics. Two of my main texts are The Theoretical Minimum books on classical and quantum mechanics by Stanford physicist Leonard Susskind (with two co-authors).

Susskind imparts “what you need to know to start doing physics.” One thing we definitely need to know, according to Susskind, is that “information is never lost.” This law, Susskind asserts, “underlies everything else.” Conservation of information is more fundamental, he says, than Newton’s first law (motion is conserved). The first law of thermodynamics (energy is conserved). And what is sometimes called the zeroth law of thermodynamics (if systems A and B are in equilibrium with C, then A and B are in equilibrium with each other). Hence Susskind calls conservation of information the “minus-first law.” The minus-first law encompasses the principle of determinism, which holds that if you know the current state of a system, you know all of its past and future. The French polymath Simon-Pierre LaPlace famously spelled out the implications of determinism over 200 years ago.

€œAn intellect which at a certain moment would know all forces that set nature in motion, and all positions of all items of which nature is composed, if this intellect were also vast enough to submit these data to analysis, it would embrace in a single formula the movements of the greatest bodies of the universe and those of the tiniest atom. For such an intellect nothing would be uncertain and the future just like the past would be present before its eyes.” This omniscient “intellect” has come to be known as LaPlace’s demon. Susskind insists that quantum mechanics, although not deterministic in the same way as classical mechanics, still conforms to the minus-first law. In a 2008 interview he said the minus-first law “underpins everything, including classical physics, thermodynamics, quantum mechanics, energy conservation, that physicists have believed for hundreds of years.” In the 1980s Stephen Hawking challenged the minus-first law, claiming that black holes destroy information. Hawking’s hypothesis “touched off a crisis in physics, a clash of basic principles like no other since Einstein was young,” Susskind said in 2008.

He rebutted Hawking in papers and a popular book, The Black Hole War. My Battle with Stephen Hawking to Make the World Safe for Quantum Mechanics. All the information sucked into a black hole, Susskind argues, is preserved in its outer membrane, or “event horizon,” where space and time undergo bizarre distortions. In a review of Black Hole War, journalist George Johnson bravely takes a stab at explaining Susskind’s thesis. €œA description of everything that falls into a black hole, whether a book or an entire civilization, is recorded on the surface of its horizon and radiated back like imagery on a giant drive-in movie screen.” Susskind, as you might guess from Johnson’s review, is fond of theories that cannot be empirically tested and hence potentially falsified.

In his 2005 book The Cosmic Landscape, Susskind contends that our universe is just a hillock in an infinite landscape of universes. This proposal is pure speculation, and hence arguably unscientific, because we have no way to prove or disprove the existence of other universes. Perhaps Susskind and other physicists don’t want us lay folk to take ideas like the multiverse or minus-first law too seriously. Maybe these are just metaphors, poetic fancies, like the Holy Ghost in Catholicism. But physicists seem to pride themselves on saying what they mean.

So, I’m going to take Susskind at his word when he declares that “information is never lost.” Let me tease out the implications of that remarkable statement. First, as I have argued previously, the concept of information doesn’t make any sense in the absence of something to be informed, that is, a mind. Information requires—it presupposes—consciousness. So, if information is conserved, so is consciousness. If consciousness exists now, it must always exist.

Or so the minus-first law implies. In fact, many scientists and philosophers have proposed that consciousness is as fundamental as matter, or even more fundamental. I’ve lumped these speculations together under the label neo-geocentrism, because they resurrect the ancient, narcissistic notion that the universe revolves around us. Neo-geocentric theories represent attempts to sneak a consoling religious assumption—this universe is all about us—back into science, and so does conservation of information. If I had to rank laws of physics, I’d go with the second law of thermodynamics, which holds that disorder, or entropy, always increases.

Our expanding cosmos is headed toward heat death, a state of terminal boringness, in which nothing ever happens. The second law of thermodynamics, evidence for which I see whenever I look in the mirror or read the news, trumps the minus-first law. Actually, I’m suspicious of all “laws” of physics, which strike me as manifestations of scientific hubris. Scientists take an assumption that applies under certain very tightly controlled conditions, usually with lots of qualifications, and transform it into a cosmic principle that applies to all things at all times in all places. But I’m especially skeptical of the minus-first law.

Never mind Hawking’s conjecture that black holes destroy information. I’m worried about far more mundane processes. Three years ago, strokes severely damaged my father’s memory, making it hard for him to recognize me and my siblings. Last June he died, at the age of 96, and my stepmother had his body cremated. My father persists, sort of, in the fragmentary, fading recollections of those who loved him.

Polymath Douglas Hofstadter coined the heartbreaking phrase “soular coronas” to describe our memories of those eclipsed by death. But one day we’ll die too. The minus-first law implies that the universe will bear the imprint of my father’s life forever. Long after our sun and even the entire Milky Way have flickered out, aliens with the godlike powers of LaPlace’s demon could in principle (that handy, all-purpose hedge) reconstruct the lives of my father and every other person who has ever lived. That’s a nice thought (which inspired the 1996 book The Physics of Immortality by physicist Frank Tipler.) But I don’t buy conservation of information any more than I buy reincarnation or heaven—or a god who cherishes us.

These propositions, scientific and religious, represent understandable but finally unpersuasive attempts at consolation. My contemplation of the inevitable loss of everyone and everything I love unsettles me. But I’d rather face death squarely than take refuge in false assurances from priests or physicists. In The Black Hole War, Susskind strikes a rare (for him) note of humility. €œVery likely we are still confused beginners with very wrong mental pictures, and ultimate reality remains far beyond our grasp.” (I found this quote in a blog post by physicist Peter Woit.) On this point, Susskind and I agree.

Meanwhile, as my end looms, I keep frantically filling up notebooks. Further Reading. The Twilight of Science's High Priests The Delusion of Scientific Omniscience Multiverse Theories Are Bad for Science Can Mysticism Help Us Solve the Mind-Body Problem?. The Rise of Neo-Geocentrism Why information can't be the basis of reality Quantum Escapism My Quantum Experiment See also “Strange Loops All the Way Down,” a chapter in my free online book Mind-Body Problems..

Delegates attending where to get zithromax over the counter an international meeting meant to protect Antarctic ocean life dashed conservationists' hopes for new marine protected areas in the where to buy zithromax Southern Ocean. The Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) concluded Friday after a week of virtual negotiations among its 26 member nations. It declined to approve three proposals for marine protected where to get zithromax over the counter areas near Antarctica. The commission, established in 1982 as part of the Antarctic Treaty System, is charged with conserving marine life around the southern continent and sustainably managing the region's fish stocks.

Those responsibilities include the power to designate marine protected areas, or MPAs, around Antarctica, if all member states collectively agree. So far, there are just two in existence where to get zithromax over the counter. One in the Ross Sea and one around the South Orkney Islands north of the Antarctic Peninsula. This year's meeting included proposals for three additional MPAs.

One off the coast where to get zithromax over the counter of East Antarctica, one in the Weddell Sea and one around the Antarctic Peninsula. Scientists warn that a combination of climate change, fishing and other human activities around Antarctica could be disrupting the region's delicate ecosystems. The Antarctic Peninsula in particular is a region that may be especially vulnerable to human disturbances in the coming decades, researchers say (Climatewire, Oct. 26).

For decades, the peninsula was one of the fastest-warming parts of the globe. In recent years, the warming trend has dampened, likely due in part to atmospheric changes caused by the recovery of the Antarctic ozone hole. Still, temperatures there have already risen substantially — this year brought record-high temperatures to the peninsula — and scientists expect the region to continue heating up in the coming decades. As the waters warm and Antarctic sea ice declines, researchers are concerned that krill populations around the peninsula could start to shrink.

These tiny, shrimplike creatures form the backbone of the Antarctic ecosystem, providing food for everything from whales to penguins. At the same time, krill fishing around the peninsula is on the rise. Some scientists have expressed concern that the combination of increased fishing and climate change could be a major threat to Antarctic marine life. A marine protected area, according to some, could help reduce the risk of overfishing and protect vital krill populations.

Earlier this month, a group of nine scientists published a comment in the journal Nature urging CCAMLR delegates to adopt the proposed Antarctic Peninsula MPA. The meeting concluded Friday without designating any new MPAs. All the proposed MPAs had been on the table for the past several years. Each year, they've all fallen short of the consensus needed to pass them.

That's despite a show of support from most member nations this year, according to Andrea Kavanagh, director of Antarctic and Southern Ocean conservation work at the Pew Charitable Trusts, which advocates for more Southern Ocean MPAs. Kavanagh attended the virtual proceedings last week. The MPAs failed to gain the necessary support from Russia and China, she said, pointing to nations that have blocked proposed MPAs in the past. But Kavanagh added that there may be hope for progress next year, which will be CCAMLR's 40th meeting, and the 60th anniversary of the Antarctic Treaty System.

"[A]lthough no MPA designations took place this year, Norway and Uruguay signed on as new co-sponsors of the East Antarctic MPA, while Australia and Uruguay did the same for the Weddell Sea MPA," Kavanagh said in an email to E&E News. "It is some progress and I hope it sets us up for an increased diplomatic outreach at the highest levels to get these done in 2021." Reprinted from Climatewire with permission from E&E News. E&E provides daily coverage of essential energy and environmental news at www.eenews.net.Psychedelics are psychoactive substances that historically have attracted exaggerations of benefits as well as alarmism. As with most subjects that bring out extreme views, the scientific data provide a more grounded perspective.

Sometimes, the scientific data require further clarification. We are responding to a thought-provoking opinion piece by Eddie Jacobs published on October 11, 2020 entitled “What if a Pill Can Change Your Politics or Religious Beliefs?. Some could mistakenly take away from the piece an unrealistic impression that is not supported by the scientific data. We worry that this may lead to alarmist reactions.

Jacobs’ piece raises ethical questions regarding emerging research suggesting psychedelics may be effective psychiatric treatments. Specifically, the concern is that psychedelic therapy could shift patients’ political beliefs “in one direction along the political spectrum” or “change [their] religious beliefs.” We agree that as with any emerging medical treatment, psychedelic therapy prompts important ethical considerations. However, we believe that the possibility implied in the headline––that psychedelics prompt substantial change in political and religious beliefs or affiliations––is not supported by the current scientific data. To be clear, Jacobs did not mention affiliations, but we believe readers might reasonably take away this interpretation.

We suggest that there is no evidence that people change political or religious affiliations from psychedelic treatments, and current evidence for other kinds of belief changes is weak. Below, we address the three major studies mentioned in the original article. The concern about political beliefs largely rests on evidence from a small pilot study of psilocybin for treating depression. The study showed an average reduction on a measure of “authoritarianism” from baseline to one week after psilocybin in seven people.

Authoritarianism, as it is operationalized here using five questions that were reduced from the original version of the scale, likely does not fit neatly into a particular political party. Many people, for example, would likely disagree with the scale item “The law should always be obeyed, even if a particular law is wrong,” regardless of political affiliation. It is also not clear that a reduction in authoritarianism (or increase in libertarianism or social/moral liberalism, the other end of the scale spectrum) holds a relation to present political affiliations. There are abundant historical examples of both left-wing and right-wing authoritarian governments (for example, communism and fascism, respectively).

Moreover, in a country such as the United States, the major left-and right-leaning parties have generally had no universal leaning toward either individual freedom or state control. The position taken along this continuum is highly dependent on the subject (for example, business regulation, abortion, gun control, social constraints on sexual behavior). In fact, the developers of the scale in question preferred not to use the term “liberal” in reference to the scale because that term had a political meaning in the United States that went beyond what the scale measures. Beyond the theoretical issues with mapping authoritarianism onto present political parties, there are also statistical concerns with this study.

The finding about reduced authoritarianism barely met the threshold of significance –– and with a one-tailed t-test. A one-tailed test provides a lower standard for achieving significance compared to the much more common two-tailed test. It is unclear if the reduction would have been significant with a two-tailed test. In any case, the effect did not last.

At the 7–12 month follow-up the decrease was not significant, even according to the lower standards of the one-tailed test. Jacobs’ piece alluded to another study about political beliefs, a 1971 study exploring the association between LSD increased liberalism. This study compared three groups. 1) people who had taken LSD as a medical treatment, 2) people who had taken LSD on their own, and 3) people who had not used LSD.

Only those who had taken LSD on their own indicated more support for policies like “individual freedom” and “foreign policy liberalism” compared to those who had not taken LSD. It is possible that those who were willing to take LSD outside of medical treatment may have already been more influenced by the liberal hippie movement that encouraged these beliefs at that time (Jacobs notes that this is correlational and not causal data). Importantly, no differences were found in this study between the political beliefs of those who received LSD under medical treatment compared to those who did not take LSD. Therefore, this study actually suggests that medical psychedelic treatments do not alter political beliefs!.

In terms of religious beliefs, Jacobs’ piece points to a concern about belief change on the basis of a survey study by our group at Johns Hopkins. This survey specifically recruited individuals who had a “God encounter experience” after taking a psychedelic outside of a research context. Before having such an experience during their psychedelic session, 21 percent retrospectively identified as atheist, whereas only 8 percent did after the experience. This decrease was accompanied by a decrease in identification with major religions, alongside increases in spiritual types of self-identification.

Crucially though, this study was in no way representative of the general public, as only people who reported encountering “God” or a similar phenomenon were included in the study. This was a very specific sample of people reporting a special kind of experience or interpretation of experience. The study cannot provide an estimate of population rates. Belief changes of a religious type would, of course, be massively inflated in this sample, and it is therefore not appropriate to draw generalized conclusions about belief change from psychedelic treatments based on these data.

Lastly, the piece cites the observation that under clinical conditions psychedelics increase, on average, a personality trait called openness to experience, a finding first reported by our group at Johns Hopkins and now replicated by others. Unlike the political and religious effects, this phenomenon appears more robust. However, while psychedelics might be unique in their ability to prompt a change in a personality trait with a short-term clinical procedure, they are not the only clinical intervention that can cause changes in personality traits. A large meta-analysis of over 200 published studies examining the effect of psychiatric treatments on personality traits found that personality was indeed changed.

Regardless of whether the intervention was a psychotherapy or a medication such as a traditional antidepressant drug, these changes reached a moderate effect size for increases in the trait of emotional stability, similar to the effect size observed for the increase in personality openness to experience from psilocybin. Lastly, the correlation between openness to experience and liberal political views is small, accounting for only around 2 percent of the relationship between the two variables. In other words, the pathway from psychedelics through openness to experience to political belief change is, for all practical purposes, negligible. While data from studies are always paramount, we note that in the first author’s experience interacting with hundreds of psilocybin study participants, he does not recall any spontaneous claims of changed political or religious affiliation in either direction.

Our primary point here is that that existing data do not suggest that meaningful changes in religious or political beliefs are likely from psychedelic therapy––and certainly not changes in political or religious affiliation. There is some evidence that psychedelic therapy can prompt changes in one’s sense of spirituality, but this term is so broadly and variously defined that it does not even necessarily relate to supernatural beliefs, and it can refer to things like one’s values or sense of connection. As with many interventions, there are cases in which individuals change in their values, attitudes and/or beliefs after a psychedelic experience. The frequency and magnitude of these occurrences are empirical questions for future research to address, but the current data simply do not support the idea that psychedelic treatments result in meaningful changes in political or religious beliefs or affiliation.

Psychedelic medicine, like any new treatment, no doubt raises important and challenging ethical issues. Consent procedures in psychedelic trials by our research group (and by other groups to our knowledge) already warn that personality and attitude changes are a possibility. Of course, this should also be done with patients if psychedelics are approved as medicine. Psychedelic experiences are sometimes held as among the most meaningful in one’s life, and may be interpreted to have philosophical or spiritual import, likely depending on the orientation of the participant.

Such effects present the opportunity for ethical pitfalls by clinicians. These and other challenges will call for important contributions from ethicists. However, we must also be careful to keep any given concern in perspective and convey realistic risks to the public and patients. From this perspective, we believe, based on the data, that major shifts in political or religious orientation or beliefs are not among the likely risks associated with this treatment.

As psychedelic researchers, we believe it is important to remain vigilant against excesses in enthusiasm as well as alarmism.In 1878 in Sweden, a 10th-century Viking warrior was discovered in a grave packed with weapons, hinting at high military status. The assumption for the next century was that this individual was male. Questions about the warrior’s sex arose in 1970s, and DNA analysis conclusively upended the belief in 2017, showing that the grave’s occupant was female. The sex determination took so long largely because modern assumptions about gender roles—in this case, that all high-status warriors are men–got in the way of the science.

Across the Atlantic in the Americas, early human burial sites are revealing a similar pattern. Applying modern assumptions zithromax 1 gram price about gender roles can lead to misconceptions. In findings published on November 4 in Science Advances, Randall Haas, an anthropologist at the University of California, Davis, and his colleagues describe a 9,000-year-old burial site for a young female individual interred with big-game-hunting tools. When the researchers analyzed this site with 17 others in the American continents, they found what they call “parity” between male and female individuals with hunting roles.

The results bury a too broad generalization about early people. That men were hunters and women were “gatherers.” Pamela Geller, an associate professor of anthropology at the University of Miami, who was not involved in the study, says the findings “substantiate what feminist scholars have been saying for several decades” about early female roles as hunters. The newly identified female hunter was found in one of two Andean burial sites that Haas and his colleagues excavated near Lake Titicaca in southern Peru. One contained the remains of a man who was aged 25 to 30 years at death and interred with a few hunting-associated items.

The other remains were of a teenager who “was clearly ceremoniously laid to rest with a set of tools that had a lot of utility,” Haas says. As with the Viking warrior, the researchers initially assumed the second grave contained a male individual because of the careful interment with costly tools associated with hunting large animals such as deer and vicuña. A close look at the scant bone samples from the second grave suggested that the person’s sex was female, however. Analysis of proteins from the teeth, which are present in a sex-based pattern, confirmed it.

That recognition led the team to analyze information from all known burial sites in the Americas for individuals whose sex had been determined and where hunting tools were present. Among 18 sites meeting these criteria, 15 contained 16 remains identified as male, and 10 had 11 remains identified as female. The scientists ran models with this information to estimate how likely an individual was to be female, given a range of female participation in hunting from 0 to 100 percent. They found that with the rate of female skeletons associated with hunting tools, female and male individuals were equally likely to be hunters.

The implication was that equal-opportunity hunting roles might have been common among early humans in the Americas. The blending of hunting roles regardless of sex is not especially surprising, says Kathleen Sterling, an associate professor of anthropology at Binghamton University, State University of New York, who was not involved in the study. Individual skill and strength likely did not matter as much as the number of participants, for example, in efforts to drive animals off a cliff or into a trap. Regardless of the sex of the skeletons, this work does not address how these cultures defined or assigned gender, says Charlotte Hedenstierna-Jonson, a senior researcher at the department of archaeology and ancient history at Uppsala University in Sweden.

She was not involved in the new paper but was first author of the 2017 study on the Viking warrior DNA. Today’s humans can determine biological sex with modern analyses, she says, but modern eyes may see gender very differently from how early humans did. €œWe must remember that it is our understanding that we’re processing, not theirs,” when considering gender roles in early human societies, she says. Researchers have “at some level” projected sex onto behavior in inaccurate ways for early humans in the Americas, Haas says.

What is important is challenging these assumptions with actual observation, he says, because “through that process, we arrive closer to the truth.”I’m a compulsive journal-scribbler. This habit, which goes back to my teens, has proved useful to my career. All my articles and books start as journal entries. But my motivation is not merely professional.

If I don’t record my thoughts, I won’t remember them, and they won’t matter. So I fear. This feeling has grown as I’ve aged. Compounding my concern is the possibility—no, probability—that one day humanity and all its residues will vanish.

Our works of science, mathematics, philosophy, art, music and, yes, journalism will slip back into the void whence they came. Everything we have thought and done will be for naught. If nothing about us endures, if nothing is remembered, we might as well never have existed. No wonder so many of us, even in this age of scientific materialism, still believe in God.

An immortal, omniscient being watches over each and every one of us, and not just celebrities like Einstein and Beyonce. He/she/it/they also surely remembers us after we’re gone, like a cosmic backup device with infinite storage capacity. Supposedly. If this divine entity does not exist, and someday all traces of us disappear forever, in what sense do our lives matter?.

Scientists are not immune to such anxieties. Existential angst, I suspect, accounts for physicists’ belief in conservation of information. I first heard about this proposition years ago, but I’ve only given it serious consideration over the last few months, which I’ve spent trying to learn quantum mechanics. Two of my main texts are The Theoretical Minimum books on classical and quantum mechanics by Stanford physicist Leonard Susskind (with two co-authors).

Susskind imparts “what you need to know to start doing physics.” One thing we definitely need to know, according to Susskind, is that “information is never lost.” This law, Susskind asserts, “underlies everything else.” Conservation of information is more fundamental, he says, than Newton’s first law (motion is conserved). The first law of thermodynamics (energy is conserved). And what is sometimes called the zeroth law of thermodynamics (if systems A and B are in equilibrium with C, then A and B are in equilibrium with each other). Hence Susskind calls conservation of information the “minus-first law.” The minus-first law encompasses the principle of determinism, which holds that if you know the current state of a system, you know all of its past and future.

The French polymath Simon-Pierre LaPlace famously spelled out the implications of determinism over 200 years ago. €œAn intellect which at a certain moment would know all forces that set nature in motion, and all positions of all items of which nature is composed, if this intellect were also vast enough to submit these data to analysis, it would embrace in a single formula the movements of the greatest bodies of the universe and those of the tiniest atom. For such an intellect nothing would be uncertain and the future just like the past would be present before its eyes.” This omniscient “intellect” has come to be known as LaPlace’s demon. Susskind insists that quantum mechanics, although not deterministic in the same way as classical mechanics, still conforms to the minus-first law.

In a 2008 interview he said the minus-first law “underpins everything, including classical physics, thermodynamics, quantum mechanics, energy conservation, that physicists have believed for hundreds of years.” In the 1980s Stephen Hawking challenged the minus-first law, claiming that black holes destroy information. Hawking’s hypothesis “touched off a crisis in physics, a clash of basic principles like no other since Einstein was young,” Susskind said in 2008. He rebutted Hawking in papers and a popular book, The Black Hole War. My Battle with Stephen Hawking to Make the World Safe for Quantum Mechanics.

All the information sucked into a black hole, Susskind argues, is preserved in its outer membrane, or “event horizon,” where space and time undergo bizarre distortions. In a review of Black Hole War, journalist George Johnson bravely takes a stab at explaining Susskind’s thesis. €œA description of everything that falls into a black hole, whether a book or an entire civilization, is recorded on the surface of its horizon and radiated back like imagery on a giant drive-in movie screen.” Susskind, as you might guess from Johnson’s review, is fond of theories that cannot be empirically tested and hence potentially falsified. In his 2005 book The Cosmic Landscape, Susskind contends that our universe is just a hillock in an infinite landscape of universes.

This proposal is pure speculation, and hence arguably unscientific, because we have no way to prove or disprove the existence of other universes. Perhaps Susskind and other physicists don’t want us lay folk to take ideas like the multiverse or minus-first law too seriously. Maybe these are just metaphors, poetic fancies, like the Holy Ghost in Catholicism. But physicists seem to pride themselves on saying what they mean.

So, I’m going to take Susskind at his word when he declares that “information is never lost.” Let me tease out the implications of that remarkable statement. First, as I have argued previously, the concept of information doesn’t make any sense in the absence of something to be informed, that is, a mind. Information requires—it presupposes—consciousness. So, if information is conserved, so is consciousness.

If consciousness exists now, it must always exist. Or so the minus-first law implies. In fact, many scientists and philosophers have proposed that consciousness is as fundamental as matter, or even more fundamental. I’ve lumped these speculations together under the label neo-geocentrism, because they resurrect the ancient, narcissistic notion that the universe revolves around us.

Neo-geocentric theories represent attempts to sneak a consoling religious assumption—this universe is all about us—back into science, and so does conservation of information. If I had to rank laws of physics, I’d go with the second law of thermodynamics, which holds that disorder, or entropy, always increases. Our expanding cosmos is headed toward heat death, a state of terminal boringness, in which nothing ever happens. The second law of thermodynamics, evidence for which I see whenever I look in the mirror or read the news, trumps the minus-first law.

Actually, I’m suspicious of all “laws” of physics, which strike me as manifestations of scientific hubris. Scientists take an assumption that applies under certain very tightly controlled conditions, usually with lots of qualifications, and transform it into a cosmic principle that applies to all things at all times in all places. But I’m especially skeptical of the minus-first law. Never mind Hawking’s conjecture that black holes destroy information.

I’m worried about far more mundane processes. Three years ago, strokes severely damaged my father’s memory, making it hard for him to recognize me and my siblings. Last June he died, at the age of 96, and my stepmother had his body cremated. My father persists, sort of, in the fragmentary, fading recollections of those who loved him.

Polymath Douglas Hofstadter coined the heartbreaking phrase “soular coronas” to describe our memories of those eclipsed by death. But one day we’ll die too. The minus-first law implies that the universe will bear the imprint of my father’s life forever. Long after our sun and even the entire Milky Way have flickered out, aliens with the godlike powers of LaPlace’s demon could in principle (that handy, all-purpose hedge) reconstruct the lives of my father and every other person who has ever lived.

That’s a nice thought (which inspired the 1996 book The Physics of Immortality by physicist Frank Tipler.) But I don’t buy conservation of information any more than I buy reincarnation or heaven—or a god who cherishes us. These propositions, scientific and religious, represent understandable but finally unpersuasive attempts at consolation. My contemplation of the inevitable loss of everyone and everything I love unsettles me. But I’d rather face death squarely than take refuge in false assurances from priests or physicists.

In The Black Hole War, Susskind strikes a rare (for him) note of humility. €œVery likely we are still confused beginners with very wrong mental pictures, and ultimate reality remains far beyond our grasp.” (I found this quote in a blog post by physicist Peter Woit.) On this point, Susskind and I agree. Meanwhile, as my end looms, I keep frantically filling up notebooks. Further Reading.

The Twilight of Science's High Priests The Delusion of Scientific Omniscience Multiverse Theories Are Bad for Science Can Mysticism Help Us Solve the Mind-Body Problem?. The Rise of Neo-Geocentrism Why information can't be the basis of reality Quantum Escapism My Quantum Experiment See also “Strange Loops All the Way Down,” a chapter in my free online book Mind-Body Problems..

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A first-class communicator, they will ideally have an understanding of the purpose and operation of a professional body and experience of representing an organisation at a high level. It is essential that the new CEO will be able to communicate knowledgeably on the issues affecting biomedical science, and pathology services in particular, which will be necessary to establish professional credibility and build effective working relations with a variety of government stakeholders as well as the biomedical scientist regulator (the Health and Care Professions Council) and other healthcare related professional bodies.For more information click here18 December 2020 Dr Martin Khechara FIBMS has been zithromax dosage forms confirmed on the British Science Association’s (BSA) Media Fellowship scheme for 2020. The IBMS sponsored a place on the British Science Association’s (BSA) Media Fellowship scheme for 2020 and members who met the award criteria were invited to apply. The winner of the selection process, Dr Martin Khechara FIBMS has now been matched with 'The Naked Scientists' podcast for the placement.

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A first-class communicator, they will ideally have an understanding of the purpose and operation of a professional body and experience of representing an organisation at a high level. It is essential that the new CEO will be able to communicate knowledgeably on the issues affecting biomedical science, and pathology services in particular, which will be necessary to establish professional credibility and build effective working relations with a variety of government stakeholders as well as the biomedical scientist regulator (the Health and Care Professions Council) and other healthcare related where to get zithromax over the counter professional bodies.For more information click here18 December 2020 Dr Martin Khechara FIBMS has been confirmed on the British Science Association’s (BSA) Media Fellowship scheme for 2020. The IBMS sponsored a place on the British Science Association’s (BSA) Media Fellowship scheme for 2020 and members who met the award criteria were invited to apply. The winner of the selection process, Dr Martin Khechara FIBMS has now been matched with 'The Naked Scientists' podcast for the placement.

Martin is a microbiologist who has previously worked at Porton Down and is now a Senior Lecturer in Biomedical Science at where to get zithromax over the counter the University of Wolverhampton. He is also the Associate Professor for Public Engagement in STEM. As part of this, Martin is leading a public engagement group called ‘Science Shack’ which provides engaging and educational science experiences for schools and the wider community. Firstly, Martin attended three where to get zithromax over the counter training sessions in November.

These comprised of a session covering placement logistics/ what to expect on their placement, followed by a session hearing from previous Fellow’s and Media hosts, and finally, a journalism ‘101’. All the Fellows were given a list of helpful resources and a copy of a book titled ‘The Craft of Science Writing’, recommended by a journalist. Martin will be placed at the Naked Scientists for 6 weeks, where to get zithromax over the counter starting January 10, 2021. The British Science Association’s Media Fellowships provide a unique opportunity for practicing scientists, clinicians and engineers to spend two to six weeks working at the heart of a media outlet such as The Guardian, BBC Breakfast or Sky News.

Martin will have the chance to gain an understanding of how the media works and to collaborate on stories with journalists. As well where to get zithromax over the counter as undertaking the media placement, Martin will also take part in presenting at the British Science Festival. It is then hoped that he will be involved in future news stories promoting biomedical science. On being awarded the fellowship, Martin said.

“I am delighted to be able to support the Institute's public engagement efforts as a British Science where to get zithromax over the counter Association (BSA) Media Fellow. Public engagement with biomedical science is so important, especially in the current climate, and I hope that my new position and skills in science communication can support biomedical scientists to better promote the vital job they do in NHS trusts across the country. To be given this opportunity is the culmination of many years of developing myself as a public engagement specialist for STEM and to say that I am excited and proud is just not enough words!. I would just like where to get zithromax over the counter to say a massive thank you to the IBMS and the BSA for giving me this opportunity.

I’ll do you proud I promise!. € Due to the zithromax situation, the 2020 fellowship programme was pushed back until January 2021..